Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2024-04-19T08:31:47+00:00 Prof. Amjad S. Dalawi [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(CUEJHSS) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUEJHSS a periodical journal publishes original researches in the Arabic, Kurdish and English langauges, and in all areas of Social Sciences, including Humanities, Economics, Law, etc.CUEJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUEJHSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has no article processing charge (APC). CUEJHSS applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. CUEJHSS Section Policy includes Original Research Articles.&nbsp; CUEJHSS has p-ISSN:&nbsp;2709-8648. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="">2707-6342</a> and a member of the Crossref a doi: <a href="">10.24086/issn.2707-6342</a></span></p> The Effect of Probe Thinking Strategy (Application of Principles) on Acquisition of Some Basic Offensive Skills in Handball 2024-01-07T18:12:11+00:00 Dana A. Mohammed [email protected] <p>Probe thinking is the structure that emerges from the interaction between the student and what he encounters, rather than what he is taught, and thinking that is focused on posing questions and coming up with solutions, the spark that keeps a learner interested. Therefore, the present study was an attempt to investigate the possible effect of probe thinking strategy on acquisition of some basic offensive skills in handball. A control group and an experimental group were utilized in a pre-post-test design. Following the pre-test, the experimental group received the treatment whereas the control group did not. For the analysis, 20 learners from Cihan University-Erbil, Iraq, were taken into consideration. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the statistical analysis (i.e., Independent samples t-test) in terms of how the two groups performed on the pre- and post-tests. The results revealed that the use of probe questions strategy is effective for the Sports Sciences students to get better results regarding pass-test, dribble-test, and shot-test. The findings of the present study can benefit all the educators and the students as well to have a better performance in practical courses. At the same time, these results can be double checked for the other sports so that they can be generalized to all the branches of Sports Sciences.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Acceptability of Google Translate Machine Translation System in Translation from English into Kurdish 2024-01-07T18:12:12+00:00 Fereydoon Rasouli [email protected] Soma Soleimanzadeh [email protected] Keivan Seyyedi [email protected] <p>The development of Machine Translation (MT) systems and their application in performing translation projects gave a crucial position to the evaluation of these systems’ outputs. Recently, the Google Translate MT system added the central accent of the Kurdish language to its language list. The current study is an attempt to evaluate the acceptability of the translated texts produced by the system. Different text typologies have been considered for the study's data. To evaluate the MT outputs, the Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU) evaluation model has been administered. The findings show that the performance of the understudy MT system in the translation of English into the Sorani accent of Kurdish is affected by some linguistic and technical hindrances, which in general affect the acceptability of translated text.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Code Switching by Novice Teachers in EFL Classes and its Effects on Students 2024-01-14T18:31:46+00:00 Huda Y. Abdulwahid [email protected] <p>Code Switching (CS) is shifting from one language to another in a dialogue, a lesson, a sermon, etc. It is used across the board in multilingual communities deliberately and unconsciously. It has many benefits. It has many negative impacts, though. It might distract students’ attention and result in opposite consequences. Therefore, in this study, using CS by novice teachers who do not have enough experience as a medium of explaining the taught material. Besides, it takes into consideration students’ attitudes toward CS as positive or negative. If they understand better after implementing CS, they consider it positive. If, on the contrary, distracts their attention, they consider it negative. The data for this study were collected from 70 students through distributing an open questionnaire and direct observation. They were analyzed using IBM SPSS. The outcomes proposed that some students switch codes at the level of words to have a smooth conversation with colleagues. However, some novice lecturers tend to explain the whole lesson using students’ first language to make sure that they have grasped it well. They do so due to the lack of experience and shortage of vocabulary. The results also pinpointed that some students have a positive reaction toward CS, yet there are many students who do not prefer following it.</p> 2024-01-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teachers’ Anxiety-relieving Techniques for Academic Success 2024-01-14T18:31:44+00:00 Marjan Abbasian [email protected] <p>Although it is fairly obvious that student stress and anxiety have a negative impact on students’ academic performance, the role that teachers can play in easing these difficulties is frequently overlooked. The purpose of this study is to discover the techniques employed by teachers to help students who are anxious about speaking English and to determine the effects of those strategies. This study makes use of a qualitative approach. The participants of this study included six lecturers from English Department of Cihan University-Erbil. The obtained data through interview are analyzed descriptively. Peer group and fun activities are two of those techniques that those teachers have used and they could enhance student self-assurance, communication abilities, and collaborative learning. Moreover, relaxing, inspiring, and entertaining are the impact of doing some fun activities by them to alleviate the anxiety level of students.</p> 2024-01-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Lean Methodology on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Performance 2024-01-14T18:31:47+00:00 Samrand Amini [email protected] Ahmed A.A Abd Ali [email protected] Shirin Shiralizadeh [email protected] <p>As the demands of English language learners should be satisfied, the question of various teaching techniques has become contentious in classrooms. Lean, a cutting-edge approach, provides a successful way to learn a language. Teachers must employ efficient teaching strategies to accomplish their goals and excite learners. The current study looked into how teaching English as a second language affected students' ability to read comprehension. A control group and an experimental group were utilized in a pre-post-test quasi-experimental design. Following the pre-test, the experimental group received the treatment whereas the control group did not. For the analysis, 40 language learners from a language school in Erbil, Iraq, were taken into consideration. Lean was also disseminated to the participants to help them determine their aims before being applied as a teaching approach to the students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the statistical analysis (i.e., Independent samples t-test). In terms of how the two groups performed on the pre- and post-tests. It was discovered that the scores were different in a significant manner. This brand-new Lean education strategy has been demonstrated in this research conducted in the context of Iraq to improve learning outcomes (in this case, reading comprehension skills), complete the curriculum on schedule, and eliminate any specific waste.</p> 2024-01-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Artificial Intelligence Application in Strategic Marketing Decision-Making Process 2024-01-24T02:26:49+00:00 Aram H. Massoudi [email protected] Sahar J. Fatah [email protected] Mohammed S. Jami [email protected] <p>This review article examines artificial intelligence (AI)’s role in strategic marketing decision-making. The researchers interviewed experts with experience in decision-making and used Carrefour Iraq as a case study to identify themes on how humans use AI for better strategic marketing decision-making. The key themes in this review were factors such as big data, efficiency, quality, trust and limitations for prediction. The study has also looked into the marketing aspect of these themes within the scope of this research. The findings indicate that AI is recognized as a tool that may support humans in making strategic decisions in marketing. However, AI can technically make such decisions without human intervention; people do not want to give AI complete autonomy in decision-making. Furthermore, the result implies that rather than making decisions independently, AI is more frequently applied to enhance strategic decision-making. It suggests that Al aims to improve decision making-making rather than supplant people in daily life. In addition, the study makes the case that Al can assist humans in making better decisions by forecasting future scenarios that consider a particular action consequence.</p> 2024-01-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teachers’ Strategies to Build and Maintain Rapport with Students at Department of Medical Biochemical Analysis, Cihan University-Erbil 2024-01-31T02:39:10+00:00 Dashne A. Saeed [email protected] <p>Building and maintaining rapport between teachers and students, and their effect on student’s learning outcomes and classroom environment, this research examines which strategies lecturers use to build and maintain rapport with their students at the Medical Biochemical Analysis department at Cihan University-Erbil. Participants (N=100) answered open-ended survey questions about strategies for rapport-building. A total of (12) strategies for building and maintaining rapport include: using the whole first day, exercising self-disclosure, recognizing students, becoming acquainted with students, being accessible, starting warmly, emphasizing student-centered learning, gathering student feedback, authenticity, listening to students, respecting students, and fairness/ being even-handed. Furthermore, ten educators were interviewed to determine the approach they employed to establish and sustain a positive learning atmosphere and achieve successful results. The findings suggest a moderate correlation between educators and learners, with the latter searching for their instructors to exhibit affirmative dispositions in augmenting their academic achievements.</p> 2024-01-30T05:49:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Organizational Culture’s Involvement Dimension and Academic Staff Task Performance 2024-02-11T02:55:41+00:00 Raad A. Shareef [email protected] <p>The influence of empowerment, team orientation, and capability development dimensions of involvement on academic staff’s task performance at Cihan University-Erbil is examined in this paper. By shedding light on the link between these involvement characteristics and academic staff task performance, this study adds to the body of knowledge in the field of organizational behavior and management. This research uses a quantitative methodology. Based on well-known theories and scales for task performance, empowerment, team orientation, and capability development, a questionnaire is created. Academic staff members from Cihan University-Erbil’s various departments make up the sample. To guarantee representation and generalizability of the results, a random sampling approach is used. The study contributed to the body of knowledge on involvement performance in this setting by demonstrating how academic staff task performance was positively impacted by empowerment, team orientation, and capability development. Furthermore, the results offer significant perspectives for academic staff and university administrators on how to raise the degrees of empowerment, team orientation, and capability development to enhance academic staff task performance.</p> 2024-02-10T06:23:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Linguistic-stylistic Analysis of Lewis Carroll’s Jabberwocky 2024-02-13T03:07:04+00:00 Shokhan M. Fatah [email protected] Areen A. Muhammed [email protected] <p>This article attempts at conducting a stylistic analytical study of a renowned poem by Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky. It tries to unveil the variations and schemes of linguistic stylistics that can be found in the poem. Carroll’s famed poem captivates with its linguistic deviations and imaginative storytelling. This scholarly investigation embarks on a comprehensive stylistic analysis of the iconic poem, delving into its distinctive linguistic features. By exploring Carroll’s masterful manipulation of language, especially in the realm of linguistics and stylistics, this research aims at unraveling the poetic brilliance and esthetic allure of Jabberwocky. The inquiry commences with a meticulous examination of Carroll’s artful utilization of linguistic play, boldly challenging conventional language norms and stretching the reader’s comprehension. The poem’s unique blend of real and invented words creates boundless creativity. His language exhibits distinctiveness and versatility, employing a diverse array of grammatical and poetic devices to manifest his unique style, thereby adding depth and intrigue to the poem. The methodology entails a comprehensive stylistic analysis based on Geoffrey Leech’s eight models of deviations and schemes. Overall, this article will show how linguistic-stylistic bridges the gap between language and literature studies, enriching researchers’ understanding of poetry within applied linguistics by scrutinizing the poet’s linguistic devices, structures, and effects. The article will encompass a theoretical explanation within the domains of literary analysis, poetic language analysis, and cognitive poetry in the realm of linguistic analysis.</p> 2024-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Task-based Language Teaching on Speaking Skill 2024-03-21T04:12:01+00:00 Fereshteh M. Azizifard [email protected] <p>The goal of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) is to assist learners in acquiring a subconscious understanding of the language, allowing them to engage effortlessly and spontaneously in communication. The present study aimed to investigate the students' attitudes towards the impact of group oral presentations on the improvement of their speaking skills. Specifically, it employed a task-based approach to teach technical English to second-year architectural engineering students at Cihan University-Erbil. Data for this study were collected through the use of a survey questionnaire. The students' feedback revealed a positive attitude towards group oral presentations and their active participation in speaking activities. However, the teachers' observations indicated that there was no notable improvement in the students' pronunciation skills. They were unable to enhance the grammatical precision of their presentation either. Generally, this approach motivated them to take part in speaking activities more. &nbsp;</p> 2024-03-20T08:34:51+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rhetorical Analysis of Engagement in Discussion Section of Doctoral Dissertations Written by Kurdish Native Speakers 2024-04-02T04:32:41+00:00 Keivan Seyyedi [email protected] <p>Academic writing is commonly regarded as a means to facilitate communication between authors and readers. As a result, scholars are expected not only to present information about the external world through their texts but also to employ language to acknowledge, construct, and foster social connections. Textual engagement requires significant linguistic and cognitive effort, regardless of the writers’ backgrounds. It involves complex knowledge, skills, and familiarity with social practices, which require explicit teaching and time. Even native English speakers find it challenging to acquire the necessary academic skills and social practices of the academic setting due to the discursive nature of higher education. This study aimed to explore the level of engagement in the discussion sections of applied doctoral dissertations written by Kurdish native speakers. To achieve this objective, the researcher analyzed eight randomly selected doctoral dissertations in applied linguistics authored by Kurdish native speakers, employing Martin and White’s (2005) framework. The study identified each dialogic engagement resource’s frequency of occurrence and functions, providing explanations and examples. The findings indicated that the writers being studied utilized different dialogic resources for engaging in conversation with their potential audience. Additionally, they preferred to employ resources that fostered expansive dialogue more often than those that limited it, possibly to reduce the chances of encountering rejection or opposition.</p> 2024-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of British Diplomats in Yazidis Affairs in Iraq 1932-1939 2024-04-10T04:46:24+00:00 Rashid M. Muhammed [email protected] Othman A. Ali [email protected] Shakhawan A. Saber [email protected] <p>Studying the history of minorities in Iraq has been&nbsp; an important field of interest for many scholars. This study (The Role of British diplomats in Yazidis Affairs in Iraq1932- 1939) is an attempt to present and analyze the role of the British diplomats&nbsp; towards the affairs relating to Yazidi minority in Iraq during a very important period in the latter’s cotemporary history. The Yazidis who had been living in Sinjar&nbsp; a sub-district of Mosul in northern Iraq had been&nbsp; in continuous conflict with Ottoman authorities . This was partly due to their refusal to perform mandatory military service, (compulsory conscription,) and paying taxes. Ottoman campaigns were conducted against them to subjugate them by force to Ottoman rule. This was the reason for their isolating themselves&nbsp; in the mountainous area far from the city center. When British had developed an influence in Iraq an opportunity was presented to the Yazidis to defend themselves. Their leaders asked British authorities to defend&nbsp; their interests and to help them get rid of the oppression of the Ottomans. For the purpose of establishing British influence among the Yazidis , the former&nbsp; called the Yazidi leaders to hold a conference and issue a plea to the&nbsp; British authorities in Iraq to include them under British protection. Britain was planning&nbsp; to set up a Yazidi princedom in Sinjar to serve as a buffer between Iraq and Syria, kipping Frances away from oil field.</p> 2024-04-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The State of Special Needs in the Iraqi Higher Education Context 2024-04-12T04:46:47+00:00 Imadin M. Zannrni [email protected] Laila B. Shareef [email protected] <p>This paper delves into a comprehensive investigation of the current situation faced by students with special needs (SSNs) and learning disabilities (LDs) across various educational levels. It aims to shed light on the existing challenges experienced by these learners in primary, secondary, and higher education settings. To ensure the validity of the findings, this study adopts a multi-method approach that combines observation, interviews, and an extensive review of relevant literature in the field. By employing observational techniques, researchers closely observe the daily experiences of SSN students within educational environments. Interviews are conducted with students, teachers, and parents to gain valuable insights into their perspectives and understand the specific difficulties they encounter. In addition, the study thoroughly examines prior scholarly works and research papers related to SSN and LD, enhancing the breadth and depth of the investigation. Upon culmination, this paper presents a set of recommendations directed toward the teaching staff, administrative personnel, and the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. These suggestions aim to foster an inclusive and supportive educational ecosystem that caters to the unique needs of SSN students. They encompass strategies for curriculum development, teacher training, classroom accommodations, and administrative policies, which collectively contribute to enhancing the learning experience and overall well-being of SSN learners.</p> 2024-04-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reviewing Southern Africa’s Status as a Developmental Region through Governance and Development 2024-04-19T08:31:47+00:00 Juliet E. Joseph [email protected] <p>This case study discusses how the democratic governance principles and norms impact development in the SADC, and how institutional and structural reforms require greater participation by society to address the governance challenges encountered in this subregion of Africa. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to examine and assess the relationship between SADC’s governance, democratic principles and norms, development plans and processes. A comparative analysis was conducted using SADC’s key democratic achievement connected to policies, processes, and remaining challenges. Subsequently, the key causes of SADC’s slow development on the African continent were explored, focusing on the failure to institutionalise liberal democratic governance consistently during postcolonial transition periods, speculating SADC’s slow development. The findings suggest that SADC is impacted by democratic principles, norms, and processes, such as local governance, civil society, and decentralisation of power. Bearing in mind Southern Africa’s economic frailty, elevated levels of civil unrest and poor service delivery, SADC authorities require a strong sub-regional governance strategy supported by robust national programmes to determine and overcome the factors hindering the institutionalisation of democratic principles in SADC, and promote strengthened institutional capacity. The unambiguous progression towards the consolidation of democracy, within the SADC, has impacted the governance and development successes of the region, resulting in democratic values and practices remaining shallowly rooted, and slow progress toward open and transparent governance.</p> 2024-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##