Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2019-11-19T11:46:28+00:00 Prof. Amjad S. Dalawi Open Journal Systems <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(CUEJHSS) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUEJHSS a periodical journal publishes original researches in the Arabic, Kurdish and English langauges, and in all areas of Social Sciences, including Humanities, Economics, Law, etc.CUEJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUEJHSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has no article processing charge (APC). CUEJHSS applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. CUEJHSS Section Policy includes Original Research Articles.</span></p> Black Public Relations and its Negative Implementation 2019-11-19T11:44:54+00:00 Omar H. Fahmi <p>Public relations ware based on the exchange of opinions and analysis a public opinion through two directions, The first is the communication issued by the institution or the individual to the society, which is based on informing them about the institution or the individual of the different products in a sincere and honest manner and through the means of communication, the second direction is when public relations transfer the views of society about the institution or individuals and their activities in a scientific manner and lead to the achievement of corrective action for the course of the work of the institution or individual. But there is another direction in public relations we can call it third direction or call it black or negative public relations and It is the process of deliberately spreading negative information about someone or about an issue beyond the description of the true public picture of the person or issue On the management of reputation, this trend has a number of techniques used and has the pros and cons we will address in this research</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Impact of Internet on Social Relationships among University Students in the Kurdistan Region 2019-11-19T11:44:57+00:00 Araz R. Ahmad <p>This research discusses a topic which has rarely been researched by researchers in their researches and it has never got scientific attention for research. The topic of (The impact of Internet on social relationships among university students in the Kurdistan Region), though it has been analyzed in few researches which is not enough for this topic.&nbsp;At the same time, the main objective of this research refers to the analyzing process of an essential topic, which is linked to the social findings of the effects of the Internet as discussing the effect of the Internet on social relationships between university students in the Kurdistan Region).&nbsp;Nowadays, generally the Internet has many effects and various different influences on social relations in the Kurdistan Region, in which Kurdish researchers have carried out less research on this sensitive topic.Since, media is counted as an important pillar in life aspects and community. Also, electronic media (the Internet) is the most influential and modern brand of media. Besides, with the rapid development of science, technology and devices, the important of media has increased. Therefore, this research has its importance and attention for the Kurdistan Region. At the moment the Internet has serious effects on, social, political, and economic aspects of a country, among the effects, which has created on social life</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of ISO 26000 in Achieving Organizational Citizenship 2019-11-19T11:45:02+00:00 Shirin J. Mohammad Khalid H. Mirkhan <p>The main problem of this research is to identify the extent to which studied companies approach or move away from adopting the principles of social responsibility of ISO 26000, and to identify the nature of relationship and impact between each of these principles and the dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior.&nbsp;The research adopted an integrated method and methodology that combines the historical approach in meeting the requirements of the theoretical side of the research and the methodology of the case study represented by the field visits of the organizations of the research sample, conducting personal interviews and viewing the documents, data and files related to the research subject. In addition,to distributing the questionnaire approved in this research in order to meet the requirements of the practical aspect of the research.&nbsp;This study reached a number of conclusions, most notably the focus of attention on the principles of social responsibility in accordance with ISO 26000, and making it a working method at the level of organizations operating in the industrial sector in the region in general and studied companies in particular. In a manner that increases the levels of conformity between the activities of these companies and the principles of social responsibility in accordance with ISO 26000 and contributes to the achievement of the objectives of these companies. In addition to the necessity of working to strengthen the relationship between the principles of social responsibility and the behavior of organized citizenship, the results of this research have indicated a positive and moral relationship between the two variables, which positively reflects the work of these organizations and achieve their objectives</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ISIS Crimes against Iraqi Minorities 2019-11-19T11:45:08+00:00 Ibrahim A. Abed <p>The Islamic State (ISIS) has committed crimes against Iraqi minorities, in particular against Yazidis. One of the crimes committed by (ISIS) is rape for two years which was planned for by this group, where there were thousands of cases and this is in violation of basic provisions of international law and human rights law.&nbsp;These crimes are dangerous and should be tackled and criminal evidence should be recorded and proved. Steps should be taken to capture (ISIS) perpetrators and they should be tried before international court. Despite that, the aftermath of these crimes should be addressed through legal, health, finance, and social procedures in order for the victims of rape to reintegrate with their society.&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Strategic Excellence 2019-11-19T11:45:12+00:00 Inas D. Mahdi Muataz A. Mohammad <p>The issue of strategic excellence is one of the topics that have received a clear interest in political studies. They know that this will only happen if they reach levels of strength that qualify them to occupy a strategic position in world politics. It is true that international relations have witnessed, for different periods, the domination of a certain power over the affairs of international interactions, but that situation did not last long. States that are in the midst of competition and strategic excellence in various military and strategic fields. In their various dimensions, whether local, regional or international.</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Relationship between the Sufi Aladawyeen and The Mamluks until the Year 1340 2019-11-19T11:45:16+00:00 Hamza K. Yaseen <p>It is a science that pays attention to purifying heart and soul and its aim is to stay away from bad deeds and inappropriate. Sometimes it has been called (the real knowledge)It’s purpose to seek the real God to get near him and avoid other people. This scientific belief seeks to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God.Sufis sometimes nicknamed ‘the poor’, ‘the stranger’ and ‘the traveller’. Initially, Sufism was accurate method and far from superstitious but later on due to various religions and plentiful people joined the sect especially Mamluks and then the effect of Greek and AflatoonPhilosophy. Some of the Sufism and its followers moved away from Isalm, Quran and Prophet hadith. As a result, Islamic scholars stood against them such as Ibn Taymiyyah(1263 – 1328) who aggressively and bravely stood against their wrongful behaviours and infringement</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ruling on Determining the Age of Marriage between Islamic Jurisprudence and Secular Law 2019-11-19T11:45:22+00:00 Abdulsatar K. Saeed <p>Islam has been considerably concerned with marriage, because it is the most serious and important contract known by human society. Therefore Islam has been very careful in strengthening its structure and keeping it from the problems leading to collapse and deviation. In order to realize such jurisprudent intents of marriage as psychological quietness, compassion and mercifulness, as well as protecting both the individual and society from any moral deviation. In the absence of the legitimate and valid marriage according to the saying of God the almighty in the holy Quran," And of his signs is that he created for you mates from among yourselves so that you may find tranquility in them. And he planted love and compassion between you. In this are signs of people who reflect". It is worth-bearing in mind that the marriage of young girls has recently appeared in many Islamic and Arab countries, including Iraq. And a dilemma has been excited concerning this topic, which led some states to enact a legislation to limit or restrict the age of marriage. And both the opinions and judgments have variated concerning this subject. And the argument and controversy is still in progress, between opponents and proponents. In juristic, legal, social and educational fields of specializations, for this one of the most sensitive topics in any society, for its close connection with reality, with its social, psychological economic and other effects. Whereas other scientists think that juristic point of view cannot be neglected, and juristic texts are ruling in this topic, which permits the marriage of young girls, and considers that the restriction of the age of marriage is a violation to the beliefs of Islamic jurisprudence. This is from one part, and from the other part some other jurists think that this topic hurts the young girls and her family and society. Because of its bad effects on the young wife. Because she is not prepared psychologically, physically and physiologically. As a result of her young children who need care and attention, furthermore, she does not understand the meaning of the marriage and its obligations and burdens. As well as not understanding the matrimonial rights and responsibilities of the marriage itself. And this topic will often lead to a far-reaching disorder in the family life unsupported by Islam. It should also be noted that the marriage of young girls, notwithstanding its being permitted. It should be limited by some restrictions of the benefits of the legitimacy and validity of marriage of young girls, according to a juristic rule concerning the right of the ruler to restrict permitted things. Which has been adopted by most Arab and Islamic legislations.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Kurdish Satellite Channels in Shaping Political Awareness among University Youth 2019-11-19T11:45:32+00:00 Karwan M. Hasan <p>This study aims to identify the role of Kurdish satellite channels in the formation of political awareness among university youth, and to know the political issues that contribute to the formation of political awareness and the development of its capabilities by political programs broadcast by Kurdish satellite channels. The researcher used a questionnaire tool in a random sample, consisting of (150) university youth, an average of (75) students for each of the universities (Sulaimaniyah - Human Development). The majority of the sample's youth follow political issues in the Kurdish satellite channels (96.7%), while the percentage of those who do not follow the channels at all (3.3%). The results show impact of emotional and behavioral resulting from exposure to political topics, but these effects vary among themselves, where the results of the scale effects indicate the presence of cognitive effects are high among young people compared to the emotional and behavioral effects.</p> <p>Key words: Kurdish satellite channels, The formation of political awareness, University youth</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Major International Crimes and Its Judicial and Legal Jurisdiction 2019-11-19T11:45:38+00:00 Pshtiwan A. Abdul Qadir Rebwar J. Shekho <p>The international crimes and both the judicial and legal jurisdiction of which are considered as a very important matter in the public international law. It is worth-bearing in mind that international crimes are various and different, and the judicial and legal jurisdiction to determine them may be at the international or territorial level, according to the constitutions, international law and the covenants closely related to them. It is also worth-mentioning that the definition, determination of these crimes and the analysis of their basic elements and contexts, and the determination of the competent judicial organs require more intensive research and studies. The establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) and the entry of its statute into force. In 2004 was regarded as an important historical step towards determining the principal. The international crimes and their definition and determination of the judicial jurisdiction overseeing them. It is to be noted that the statute of this court defined the genocide and anti-humanitarian crimes as well as war crimes, aggression crimes and regarded them as international crimes. Therefore the establishment of this court was considered as an important factor for stabilizing the world and deterring the criminals involved in committing international crimes and the international crimes themselves in general.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1"></a>&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mechanisms for the Settlement of International Disputes in the Security Council and the UN General Assembly 2019-11-19T11:45:43+00:00 Pshtiwan A. Abdul Qadir Ashna A. Mahmoud <p>&nbsp;The united nation organization has played and is still playing an important and pioneering role, since its establishment, in settling the international conflicts by peaceful or military means, according to its charter and other rules of public international law. It is worth-bearing in mind that the Security Council and the General Assembly are considered as main organs executing the fundamental rule in solving international conflicts. It is to be noted that we shall be focused on explaining and analyzing in this piece of research the mechanisms available to these organs to execute their role in protecting international peace and security, by solving, preventing or settling international conflicts. It is also worth-mentioning unquestionably that the acts of these two organs are encountered with many practical and legal problems and dilemmas. Because of the dominance of the policy of the superpowers in the field of international relations. We shall indicate in this study how these two organs, particularly the Security Council, settle international conflicts Because the Security Council is being granted by the UN charter many jurisdictions enabling it to make decisions obliging all the states. Contrary to the UN General Assembly which has few limited choices in settling international conflicts. Because of the non-obligatory characteristic of its decisions, as opposite to those made by Security Council</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Using Objective Programming to Help in Investment Decision Making in the Financial Market 2019-11-19T11:46:06+00:00 Qusay H. Al-Salami <p>It is not a secret that Iraq has an attractive economic environment for investment owing to the diversity of the Iraqi economy in its human, natural and spatial resources. We can see this through the positive indicators of oil sector, which has an active role in the economic development, and in the industrial sector, particularly, in the field of sulfur manufacturing, nitrogen fertilizers and phosphates also. Whereas the negative effects of economic fluctuations due to internal factors related to the poor decision-making investment that is unrelated to the scientific method, and due to external factors that have affected the security and political situation of Iraq. Therefore, it is necessary to provide efficient methods and ways that help investors to target the optimum investment of portfolio in the Iraqi stock market to reduce the risk ratioزThe research aims at identifying the concept of the investment and the risk associated with it, as well as the concept of programming goals as a method of operations research that can be used to make better investment decisions, and to promote the research to the ability and efficiency of this model to deal with multiple conflicting or contradictious objectives with complex variables and constraints to evaluate the investment alternatives of the company which is under studying.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Middle East Engines Security for the period 1979-2018 2019-11-19T11:45:56+00:00 Raad Q. Salih <p>Having the mental capacity to come closer to the proper prediction of the future of security in the Middle East requires studying and analyzing the most important issues and crises that affected security in the Middle East from 1979 to 2018, and these issues and crises continue to significantly affect the image of security in the Middle East, Middle East in the near future.</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Private International Law in Solving Rivers' Pollution Conflicts 2019-11-19T11:45:53+00:00 Sanarya M. Nihad <p>The piece of research is focused on the possibility of protecting international rivers, (that is to say, the rivers passing through the territories of more than one state), from the pollution threatening the human kind. After the legislations gave significant attention to the environment, and the ways how they could be protected from pollution. Therefore, we shall try to apply connecting factors specialized in solving the conflict of laws within the context of illegal acts pertaining to environmental pollution of waters of international rivers. With the reference made to both the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. After the international treaties had failed to solve this dangerous dilemma, as the result of the non-obligation with them.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tort Liability for Wrong Media Translation 2019-11-19T11:46:02+00:00 Layla I. Abulkassem Abeer M. Jabar <p>The research dealt with the question of the tort liability of the interpreter for the mistakes of the media translation. This is because of the importance of this subject, especially its importance is to explain the concept of the media translation and its rules and mechanisms and the standards it controls. It also lies in the statement of the right to those affected by common mistakes that have become clear. Also, to see the appropriateness of the general rules of tort to address the errors of the translator during the process of media translation, and their effects. The conclusion of the research included a set of conclusions and recommendations</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physical-motor Intelligence in the Technical Gymnasium and its Relationship to the Performance of Some Skills of Parallel Bar for Third Stage Students in Physical Education 2019-11-19T11:46:11+00:00 Hawder D. Abdulqader hawder.khoshnaw@cihanuniversity.ed Afaqet K. Hussein hawder.khoshnaw@cihanuniversity.ed <p>This research is a study the importance of physical-motor intelligence in the technical gymnasium, the research about a good quality and research skills (backward kip, Forward Straddle Roll, Shoulder stands on the bars) on ​​the parallel device. Research on a parallel device for the students of the third stage in the School of Physical Education at the University of Koya.The current research for the recognition of the level of physical intelligence and motor skills (backward kip, Forward Straddle Roll, Shoulder stands on the bars) as well as identify the relationship between physical intelligence and motor skills in question.The researchers used the descriptive approach in the formal relationship method, which links two variables. The research included students in the third stage of the Faculty of Education / School of Education and the number of (30) male students who provide the community with research (75%).Following the distribution of the questionnaire, the physical intelligence of the motor and the testing of the skills examined in the search for data and results. Results of research shown for the sample of the research for a good level of physical intelligence in the motor skill of backward kip and Forward Straddle Roll while the level of results is not good than the physical intelligence of motor skills of Shoulder stands on the bars.There is a positive relationship between the physical intelligence of the motor and all the skills in search on the parallel device.</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Classification and selection in terms of physical abilities of basketball players in youth centers in Erbil province 2019-11-19T11:45:48+00:00 Goran M. Qader Nawzad H. Darweesh Bayar A. Mohammad <p>The aim of this research is to classify the basketball players in the youth centers in Erbil governorate in terms of physical abilities according to the Classify Cluster method and to identify the effectiveness of the classification variables in the cluster method of the basketball players in the youth centers by finding differences between the classified groups.The sample consisted of (82) players representing (6) youth centers in Erbil governorate and (91.11%) of the research community. Seven physical abilities were analyzed in basketball using cluster analysis. Two groups of players (71 players), and the other (8 players).The most important conclusions of the study were the cluster analysis of youth centers into two groups of players through the explosive ability of vertical jump testing of stability and transient velocity through a 30 meter test and the three-speed speed test force, for the small group (8 players (. The final product of research is to come up with a set of taxonomic variables that are elements of physical abilities by which players can pick basketball.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Importance of Scientific Research Study and its Application in Students' Research 2019-11-19T11:46:20+00:00 Mujeeb H. Mohammed Omead I. Hussain <p>&nbsp; The knowledge of scientific research methods,( methods, techniques and procedures), has become important for any field of knowledge, and by extrapolating the reality within universities and higher institutes, including the current study community and to see the research completed by the students of these institutions and interviews with a large segment of students within these institutions It was found that there are difficulties and obstacles that prevent suitable application of methods and techniques of scientific research in the preparation of research and scientific studies, These difficulties can be summarized as follows:Lack of interest in the study of scientific research. - Lack of expertise of faculty members to teach the curriculum and methods of scientific research. Lack of references and sources related to method of scientific research. Not keeping pace with developments, especially technological ones, which are used in scientific research.</p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##