Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2022-06-13T08:53:45+00:00 Prof. Amjad S. Dalawi Open Journal Systems <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(CUEJHSS) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUEJHSS a periodical journal publishes original researches in the Arabic, Kurdish and English langauges, and in all areas of Social Sciences, including Humanities, Economics, Law, etc.CUEJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUEJHSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has no article processing charge (APC). CUEJHSS applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. CUEJHSS Section Policy includes Original Research Articles.&nbsp; CUEJHSS has p-ISSN:&nbsp;2709-8648. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="">2707-6342</a> and a member of the Crossref a doi: <a href="">10.24086/issn.2707-6342</a></span></p> The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior 2022-01-30T02:57:28+00:00 Mohammed S. Jami Azwar M. Qasim Agha <p>The paper focuses on determining whether organizational justice has impact on the organizational citizenship behavior in charity organization in Erbil/Iraq. Correlation analysis analyzed (r =0.795**) was found between organizational justice and OCB, (r =0.424**) was found between Distributive and OCB (r =0.768**) was found between Procedural and OCB, (r =0.784**) e was found between Interactional and OCB. Simple Analysis concluded supported that there is linkage between organizational justice as an independent variable and OCB as a dependent variable (Adjusted R2 = 0.630, p &lt;0.01). Multiple Regression Analysis concluded supported that there is linkage between dimensions of organizational justice as an independent variable as listed as Distributive, Procedural and Interactional with OCB as a dependent variable (Adjusted R2 = 0.654, p &lt;0.05). Rely of the study outcome all hypotheses which are H1, H2, H3 and H4 were confirmed.</p> 2022-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Educational Research Issue in English Language Teaching and Learning 2022-01-30T02:57:26+00:00 Pola T. Mohammed Azad N. Mustafa <p>English language is considered as the most leading language globally. Previous studies affirmed that English language teaching and learning (ELT) is the most challenging area. A huge number of researches and publications are being published in this area concerning various aspects. Therefore, this study aims to presents a meta-analysis of previously done studies seek to investigate the various aspects in English language teaching and learning. The study is based on qualitative research approach as entire data has been collected from existing journals and research databases. A number of 8 articles have been gathered which have been published from 2012 to 2017. The findings of this meta-analysis provides the value to researcher and academic practitioners as well.</p> 2022-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Governance and Cadre Deployment in South Africa 2022-01-30T02:57:25+00:00 Victor H. Mlambo Sphephelo P. Zubane Xolani Thusi <p>The former Minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs, Dr Zweli Mkhize, painted a bleak picture about the state of local government. The minister stated that 87 municipalities – about a third of South Africa’s total of 257 – remain dysfunctional or distressed. Underpinning this dysfunctionality was mismanagement due to political instability or interference, corruption and incompetence. This then results in poor service delivery, thus prolonging the periods of underdevelopment and poor access to basic services. This paper argues that cadre deployment has hindered the effective service delivery in local municipalities, thus the domino effect has been riots, protests and wasteful expenditure at the local government level. This results in participatory exclusion when it comes to collective development.&nbsp; By strictly analysing relevant literature related to corruption, and cadre deployment within the local government domain in South Africa, it became evident that the quest for socio-economic development in rural areas is deeply dependent on local governance having competent and skilled personnel who would prioritise service delivery rather than political loyalty at the expense of development. Nonetheless, the main question going forward is to what extent will loyalty ahead of competence be at the core of municipal governance and what implications will this have for future developmental prospects, good governance and service delivery?</p> 2022-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Impact of Academic Satisfaction as a Mediator on International Conferences 2022-01-30T02:57:27+00:00 Qusay H. Al-Salami Souhila N. Abdalla <p>Scientists have lately discovered that the quality of services has a significant influence on academic satisfaction and academic loyalty. Universities in Erbil are competing attract academics by conducting international conferences. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the service quality in international conferences. A statistical analysis was provided based on data collected from 150 responses from academics at Cihan University-Erbil and other universities in the region. A structured questionnaire was conducted by the respondents in order to analyze their general expectations on conference services and the actual service performance they perceived with the conference. The study also assessed the impact of respondents’ past experiences on their expectations. The findings of this study show that we have positive effect between the total effect of (SQ) the independent variable on (CI) the dependent variable is highly significant with (t = 6.02, p&lt; 0.05), also the effect of the mediator variable (AS) was significant with (t = 7.01, p&lt; 0.05), and finally both the independent variable and the mediator variable (SQ) and (AS) have a significant effect on the dependent variable (CI). We found that the meditation effect was partial but not complete effect.</p> 2022-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Obstacles to Job Satisfaction Among Workers Living with War Caused Disabilities in ‎Changara District in Mozambique. ‎ 2022-02-10T12:15:38+00:00 Takupiwa M. Nyanga <p>Job satisfaction of all categories of workers is one of the key antecedents that ensure increased competiveness of organizations. The need to establish factors that impede job satisfaction among people living with war induced disabilities was the main aim of this study. Furthermore, effects of war that adversely affect the attitude of workers with war induced disabilities towards their work were a major driver of this paper. The study employed a pure qualitative research approach where data was collected using face to face interview from 29 participants and analyzed using the thematic data analysis method. Participants were selected using snowballing sampling technique. Job satisfaction was found to be extremely low among employees living with war induced disabilities. People with different disabilities experience a host of work and home related challenges which significantly affect their job satisfaction levels. The problems encountered by people living with disabilities that affect their job satisfaction are mainly centered on ergonomics, lack of relevant assistive technology, stigmatization, discrimination and lack of physical and emotional protection from weather conditions, workmates and supervisors. The link between job satisfaction of workers with war induced disabilities and organizational competitiveness would further advance theory of job satisfaction and provide managerial implications that is helpful for an improved organizational performance. The study recommended that organizations should re-organize their work stations so as to accommodate the needs of people with disability.</p> 2022-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Literature in Challenging Cultural Imperialism 2022-02-10T12:15:39+00:00 Akrm E. Danail <p>The reality of cultural imperialism is a subject that has been extensively explored by many scholars. Many writers have written out their thoughts about this crucial topic. In this sense, it is imperative to understand that imperialism would not exist without the establishment of an Empire. However, all dominated territories have experienced a high level of cultural imperialism; and this structure has affected their lives, history, identity, uniqueness, and the way they live. The truth is that the superior force subjugates the weaker one and imposes its culture over it and this is where the theorization of cultural imperialism begins to come into form. However, this mindset of cultural imperialism has made the modern superpower to continue to influence the way other nations of the world live even without the cultural consensus. The expansion of the modern Empire brought about colonialism and eventually led to cultural imperialism. The writers have tried to write in a way that reflects the resistant spirit in which the literature is used in challenging this peculiar phenomenon. It is in this sense this study examines how literature becomes an effective weapon in challenging cultural imperialism—a new form of imperialist system that we experience in recent times.</p> 2022-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Representation of Gender Identity in the Persian Translations of “Pride and Prejudice” 2022-03-17T08:39:46+00:00 Sirvan A. Aminzadeh <p>This paper investigated how the gender identity of the female protagonist in the English novel <em>Pride and Prejudice</em> (Austen, 1813) and its two Persian translations was represented under the influence of the dominant ideology in Iran`s pre-and post- Islamic Revolution eras. In so doing, Baker`s analytical model (2006) was applied by which the ST and the TTs were analyzed at micro-and macro-levels. In this regard, the configurations of features of narrativity in all versions (i.e., both ST and TTs), and the influence of Iran`s ruling systems on these configurations were investigated. As a result, it was revealed that the representation of the protagonist`s gender identity was SL oriented in the pre-Islamic Revolution translation, and it was TL oriented in the post-Islamic Revolution translation. These findings affirmed Baker`s claim that a translation as a different version of a foreign narrative disseminates the favorite social reality in the TL society.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> 2022-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analyzing Iraqi Political Cartoons 2022-03-17T08:39:48+00:00 Huda Y. Abdulwahid <p>Pictures have an essential effect on our thoughts and decisions.&nbsp; We have also noticed how these pictures produced in the form of cartoons affect our viewpoints.&nbsp; They do so since we are addicted to social media to the extent it can manipulate our thoughts unconsciously and obnoxiously. Besides, people don’t have the courage to express their viewpoints clearly, so they tend to use the satire to keep their face.&nbsp; This motivates the researcher to analyze the underlying structure of this satire presented in caricatures to read the message clearly.&nbsp; This research aims at revealing the way the political caricatures are produced and the main characteristics of political caricatures.&nbsp; Incorporating a methodology depending on selecting some samples, this paper is a semiotic analysis of political caricatures announced through the election campaign 2018 in Iraq.&nbsp; It concentrates on the format caricatures used as a communicative channel on net platform to come up with essential senses and prevailing political matters. This is carried out by adopting Barthes’ semiotic theory which is the first apparent semiotic approach. It is a good means to analyze the implied structure, including the dictionary and implied senses of creating influence of political caricatures. Besides, it provides us with a good means to interpret and understand political caricatures. This is quite important since political cartoons work as an approach to comprehend human consciousness.</p> 2022-02-16T10:00:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Measuring Students' Critical Thinking 2022-03-17T08:39:47+00:00 Imadin M. Zannrni <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Staring from the increasing importance of Critical Thinking (CT), playing a key role in learning English as a second language, aiming to develop the educational situation in Kurdistan Region and Iraq as well as raising the awareness of the CT, and being one of the most prominent 4Cs the researcher has conducted this paper that examines three studies, their names will be mentioned afterward, in the field of critical thinking. Each study has got its own methodology, instruments, and goals so it has been a must to examine also to analyze the research methodologies, the findings, the discussions, and the research ethics. And, the researcher has tried to set a compromise among the findings.</p> 2022-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## How Language Creates Bonds among Cross-Cultural Communities 2022-03-17T08:39:47+00:00 Shalaw S. Abdulrahman <p>The objective of this thesis is to evaluate how the use of language creates bonds among cross-cultural communities. Language is an important aspect of human relationships because it is the primary way of communication. The use of language becomes more vital and intricate in cross-cultural communities due to the fact that language reflects culture. Another objective that will be evaluated is the challenges faced when using different languages in cross-cultural communities and how these barriers impact the bond created in cross-cultural communities. The significance of language in cross-cultural communities is becoming a more prominent topic in development literature and social studies on a global scale. The operational principles and mindset of a community are developed and expressed in their methods of thinking, behaving, and engaging with the outside world through language and culture. Language has an essential role in integrating economic, political, and social changes, as well as other developing towns, which are intertwined with the cultures of these communities. The concepts of cross-cultural communities are built on the interconnections of various cultural and environmental elements. Secondary data were used to gather information for the topic of interest in this thesis and content analysis was used to examine the data gathered. The preservation of indigenous languages is vital to many people today because it protects their cultural heritage, just as language has always been a significant force in communities as a means of preserving one's own culture or controlling other people groups.</p> 2022-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Impact of Developing Short-Term Memory on the Interpretation Performance of Students 2022-03-17T08:39:46+00:00 Fereydoon Rasouli <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This paper is concentrated on the impacts of short-term memory development techniques on students’ performance in interpretation courses. Subjects of the study are chosen among senior students of the Translation Department, Cihan University-Erbil. Based on the result of the current study to develop the interpretation skills of students and trainees, interpretation teaching programs should not only focus on theoretical and practical aspects of interpretation but also cognitive aspects such as memory development. In other words, the findings show that memory boosting techniques have a meaningful impact on the interpretation performance of students; Therefore, practical courses to develop students’ memory must be added to the curricula to prepare students for accomplishing their tasks successfully.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Factors that Influence Knowledge Sharing in Educational Institutions 2022-03-17T08:39:45+00:00 Mohammed A. Karem Manaf B. Raewf Thabit H. Thabit Rana M. Shakir <p>The objective of the study is to identify the elements which have an impact on sharing of knowledge at Cihan University in Erbil. Although previous studies have identified a range of elements affecting knowledge sharing, further research is needed to understand the factors driving knowledge sharing, particularly among higher educational institutions in Iraq. Since there are few studies about the sharing of knowledge among Iraqi higher education institutions' staff and there is no current model that has all of the elements required to examine the sharing of knowledge, the researchers investigated the effects of organizational, individual, and technological variables on academics' knowledge sharing behavior. Cihan University staff in Iraq's Kurdistan Region completed a total of 78 validated questionnaires. The data were evaluated with the use of a structural equation model (PLS-SEM). According to the findings of the study, organizational and technological factors are important indicators of knowledge sharing in educational institutions.</p> 2022-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Roles and Routines in Investigative Journalism in Collaborative Environments 2022-03-18T17:30:19+00:00 Dashti M. Abdullah <p>&nbsp;A global network of journalistic networks has transformed investigative journalism over the past two decades, adding layers of collaboration to what was previously an individual pursuit. A recent case&nbsp;of collaborative investigative reporting at its best was a worldwide effort to reveal breaches of tax haven information, through&nbsp;the Panama Papers (2016). As a result of these remarkable accomplishments, study&nbsp;on multi countries partnership&nbsp;is rising. However, it's still unclear how this combining&nbsp;of facilities, connections and time&nbsp;has influenced day-to-day operation. Newsrooms in developing and heritage newsrooms are navigating their patterns and duties while creating new investigative journalistic practices. The Guardian, a mainstream media firm that has worked at both the domestic&nbsp;and international&nbsp;levels, and Bureau Local, a society/neighborhood&nbsp;journalism co-op, are all given as examples. These actors use a language of justification to explain the differences between the old and the new. While "new" ideas become more common with time, notions like cooperation are also becoming&nbsp;element of decision making&nbsp;process, and information and information&nbsp;development take place within the conventional&nbsp;context of reporting.</p> 2022-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Autobiographical and Cultural Influences in F. Scott ‎Fitzgerald's ‘Tender is the Night’‎ 2022-06-13T08:53:45+00:00 Amna A. Othman <p>Like most of his contemporaries of the American men of letter who spent long years as expatriates in Europe, F. Scott Fitzgerald's most works are influenced by either autobiographical elements or some philosophical, scientific and historical sources, which are put together in terms of "cultural elements". The main sources and material of Fitzgerald's fictional works in general and in ‘‘Tender is the Night’’ in particular are those of autobiographical and cultural influences that played major roles in setting the environments, delineating the characters and suggesting the themes of his works. The present paper sheds light on the autobiographical influences on Fitzgerald's ‘‘Tender is the Night’’ besides the impact of the writer's readings in history, philosophy and poetry in making and shaping this novel.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Fitzgerald, autobiographical, philosophical, Dick Diver, Nicole.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Students’ Classroom Presentations in Developing their Speaking Skills 2022-06-13T08:53:45+00:00 Imadin M. Zannrni <p>Believing in the importance of speaking skills as a main key to communicate, this paper examines the advantages of students' classroom presentations develop their speaking skills at Cihan University - Erbil. This study is a descriptive analytical pilot study involving 47 students from The Translation Department. It aims at investigating the outcomes of presentations. A 19-item questionnaire was given to students including three choices. In order to achieve the validity and reliability of the paper, interviews were conducted with four students. The results show that the presentations can develop students' different aspects of speaking skills.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Determinants of Tax Incentives and the Effect of Corporate Tax Rate on the Foreign Direct Investment 2022-06-13T08:53:44+00:00 Shene M. Kamaran Abdulla Hazhar K. Ali <p>Corporate tax incentives are granted by governments to encourage foreign direct investment FDI. While the tax policy in Iraq varies for both domestic and foreign investments, the Iraqi government offers tax holidays between 3 to 10 years to attract foreign investors to do their desirable investments. The objective of this research is to analyze how Iraqi's corporate tax rate affects FDI, and study the comparison between Iraqi and KRG tax policies. The data are annual observations of the Iraqi tax rate which is the net percentage of profit, and FDI net percentage of GDP. The time-series data from 2005 to 2019 were employed. Three distinct sorts of tests are engaged in this research, the first stage unit root test is conducted to determine the stationary of the data, secondly, Johansen co-integration test was used to find co-integration between variables, and finally, the Granger Causation test is used to determine causality among variables over the period. The finding result shows that the tax rate and FDI are co-integrated and have a long-run relationship. Particularly, foreign direct investment is impacted by changes in the tax rate, while fluctuation in the number of FDI has not any influence on the tax rate.</p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pricing Categories and its Effect on Consumer Buying Decision 2022-06-13T08:53:43+00:00 Yazen N. Mahmood Ali J. Jaafar <p>Consumer buying decisions (CBD) are affected by many factors, and pricing is among them.&nbsp;However, to understand how pricing affects the buying decision of consumers, researchers found that it is necessary to clarify pricing categories. &nbsp;The objective of this study is to see how each pricing category affects CBD. Since there are few studies regarding the impact of pricing categories on CBD especially in Iraq. &nbsp;Researchers investigated the impact of fair price, fixed price, and relative price on CBD. A questionnaire was distributed randomly on consumers who were willing to respond, 132 valid questionnaire were gathered and analyzed by SMART PLS3 to arrive at the study's findings. Moreover, the results showed that the fixed price and fair price had a positive effect on the CBD.&nbsp;</p> 2022-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##