Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(CUEJHSS) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUEJHSS a periodical journal publishes original researches in the Arabic, Kurdish and English langauges, and in all areas of Social Sciences, including Humanities, Economics, Law, etc.CUEJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUEJHSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has no article processing charge (APC). CUEJHSS applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. CUEJHSS Section Policy includes Original Research Articles.&nbsp; CUEJHSS has p-ISSN:&nbsp;2709-8648. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="">2707-6342</a> and a member of the Crossref a doi: <a href="">10.24086/issn.2707-6342</a></span></p> Cihan University-Erbil en-US Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2707-6342 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> The Cultural Diversity in the Workplace <p>This research paper presents the workplace cultural diversity of a developing country (Iraq) and its role to make the position is better than before. This paper will examine the vision of diversity, diversity in an organization, and the cultural diversity in the workplace, and its role to help the organization in its success. The research methods were used to recognize the importance of cultural diversity, using a framework with specific measures, to evaluate the points of view of administrators and decision-makers in a number of companies in Kurdistan region of Iraq.&nbsp;The researchers concluded that many of the respondents didn’t complain or suffer from racism in their companies in Kurdistan region of Iraq, and many of the respondents believe that their companies encourage the cultural diversity. Also, the researchers recommend that organizations in Kurdistan region of Iraq should organize conferences, meetings, and seminars to encourage the cultural diversity.</p> Manaf B. Raewf Yazen N. Mahmood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 5 1 1 6 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp1-6 Out-of-class English Practicing <p>Research in Second/Foreign language learning indicates that using English outside of the classroom is an essential part of the language learning process. However, certain studies have been cared out on university-level EFL students indicate that students use English minimally when outside of the classroom. This study furthers the research on English use outside of the classroom to more fully understand out-of-d all types of language learners and the link between language proficiency and out-of-class English language use.&nbsp;For methodology, three private universities in Erbil are concerned. The tools that are used in this study is a questionnaire and also interview. Validity and reliabilities are regarded here. The aims are to investigate the use of of-out-of class activity type that promotes using English and even their attitudes toward the benefits of using English outside of class. Research explores some recommendations to English language departments in the three universities which are helpful for the students’ language proficiency, the research also provides some suggestions for further studies.</p> Zhakaw H. Ahmed Wrya I. Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 5 1 7 15 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp7-15 A Study of the Teaching-Learning Challenges of the 21st Century at University ELT Classroom <p>With the increased anticipation of a university degree as a requirement for workforce entry, the criticism of business leaders, and the general public, it becomes critical for institutions of higher education to know what they are offering students, especially the English language and how well this subject is being presented. Therefore engaging and preparing students for life after school is a great challenge to teachers and institutions. Through the implementation of new tools and practice, this study was designed to explore the teaching-learning challenges of the 21st century at the university ELT classroom. The researcher administered a questionnaire to 171 students and 40 faculty members from three universities in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Statistical Package analyzed the data for Social Science, including Descriptive statistical analyses such as the mean and standard deviation, also Pearson Correlation and ANOVA test to compare the groups' responses. The results showed that learning a second/foreign language collaboration skills while in the classroom inside universities is one of the suitable ways for learning in current time. Also, students in universities have been able to assess their collaboration skills when working via group effectively and positively effect their learning of the English language. Finally, the students have tried to develop their skills by using technology as a tool for learning; this is showing as finding in this study that the availability of tools or technology devices positively and effective factor for students to learn second/foreign language and skills in their universities.</p> Laila B. shareef Nada J. Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 5 1 16 24 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp16-24 University Learners' Perspective towards Factors Affecting the Speaking Skill <p>&nbsp;This study is an attempt to explore the essential factors that affect the Speaking Skill of English language learners (ELLs). Its primary objective is to give an analysis of the perspective of the participants in respect of the central factors influencing the speaking skill. The knowledge of the participants concerning the issues pertinent to the speaking skill is presented. The study adopts a mixed-methods research approach: a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. A structured questionnaire and interviews are instruments of data collection which are analyzed statistically and descriptively. The study lays emphasis on the significance of the speaking skill. After presenting the literature review, it sheds light on factors that affect the speaking skill. Following this, features of the speaking skill are highlighted. The findings of the study signals that there are methodological, linguistic-related and psychological factors influencing the speaking skill of ELLs. And the most influential factors are oral practice, range of vocabulary and self-confidence. &nbsp;</p> Karzan A. Jezhny Nazenin S.M Bapir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 5 1 25 31 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp25-31 The Logic Game, Fallacy in Selected Poems by John Donne <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze three seduction poems by John Donne regarding his use of fallacy as a technique for seduction. These poems are “The Flea”, “Confined Love” and “To His Mistress Going to Bed”. Donne tries to manipulate reasoning in the arguments with the women in those poems cleverly through false beliefs i.e., fallacies, to convince them of the legitimacy and sanctity of sexual intercourse, whether it is premarital or adultery. He deploys strong fallacious arguments with the women, who are presented as cautious or dismissive, in all three poems to achieve his aim of convincing those women to voluntarily agree to his sexual desire.</p> Iman M. Khdairi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-10 2021-05-10 5 1 32 34 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp32-34 Narrators' Credibility <p>The debate on the reliability of the story teller or narrator in fiction writing is so intense to the degree of controversy. Ever since the early stages of fiction writing, most of the novelists seek new methods and techniques in writing their stories. Some of them have achieved success and became known worldwide, and their works have become masterpieces and essential landmarks in the world of fiction. These works have been among the curricular subjects taught in the most esteemed universities in the world. These eminent works have mostly been tackled thematically by reason of the novelty and importance of their themes, yet there are only a handful critiques on their technical aspects, style, diction being used, or narrative methods. This is a comparative study of some of such works like F. Scott Fitzgerald’s <em>The Great Gatsby</em> in comparison with some other works such as Joseph Conrad’s <em>Heart of Darkness</em> and Emily Bronte’s <em>Withering Heights</em>.</p> Raad S. Rauf Krm E. Danail ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-10 2021-05-10 5 1 35 38 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp35-38 Measuring Performance Efficiency Indicators <p><em>Measuring performance efficiency indicators is considered one of the most important topics that public or private companies should undertake, as it provides extensive information on its reality and highlights the most important strengths and weaknesses that guide the company's management, which is considered a fundamental basis for the decision-making process.&nbsp;</em><em>This study was conducted on the General Company for Agricultural Supplies "GCAS" of the Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture in order to estimate the criteria of the efficiency of its performance in the years (2016) and (2018) and to make comparisons between the two years</em><em>.</em><em> The results showed that most of the performance criteria for the year (2018) fell below the base year (2016), which requires a pause to improve the performance efficiency in order to develop its future activity in a manner commensurate with its position in preparing the various agricultural requirements that the agricultural sector deals with</em><em>.&nbsp;</em><em>The research included some conclusions related to the decrease in the efficiency of the company's performance in managing working capital in (2018) comparing to the year (2016) as the liquidity ratio fell below the acceptable rates, which indicates that the company's ability to meet its obligations in the future has decreased. The working capital turnover rate also decreased, indicating that it was not used correctly in addition to other reasons</em><em>.</em> <em>The research also included some important recommendations that enable the company to overcome the failures that it faced during the study period.</em></p> Ali S. Ahmed Tariq N. Ibrahem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-30 2021-05-30 5 1 39 44 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp39-44 Implementing Analysis of Ordinal Regression Model on Student’s Feedback Response <p>Instruction is a multidimensional procedure including a quantity of features, e.g., tutor qualities, that occasionally are hard to assess. In certain points, education efficiency, that is a part of instructing, is affected by a combination of teacher features for example, capacity and clarity to encourage the students to make them study of his subjects, capacity to establish the lesson also with trainings and lectures. These aspects are not only attributable to motivate students, but also age, gender, prior experiences, As more and more the effectiveness of teaching is becoming even more significant in school evaluation system, it is, indeed, essential to discover how to assess it and find the significant related factors for giving the best rank of feedback to their tutors. This paper focuses the assessment of teaching effectiveness forum from students’ perspective “Feedback”, examine the questionnaires provided to the students of Cihan University at the end of their courses and discover the most effected teacher’s characteristics. The outcome variable (Student’s Feedback) was recorded on well-ordered, five-point scale of Likert provided by the students, to a set of independent variables to teacher level. The major techniques elaborated in the model fitting for ordinal regression were stating which independent variables are most likely to be kept in the model and selecting the link function such as, (logit link, complementary log-log link, negative log-log link and probit link) which verified the model suitability. Further to that, several statistical diagnoses have conducted like the model fitting, classification accuracy and the validity assumptions of the model, which is parallel lines, were fundamentally calculated in choosing the best fitted model. The dataset implemented in the analysis entails of almost (21566) respondents to the formed questionnaire in relation to courses of Cihan University for the 2018 – 2019 academic year.</p> Dler H. Kadir Ameera W. Omer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 5 1 45 49 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp45-49 The Relationship between the Elements of Marketing Mix and Consumer Behavior during Environmental Uncertainty: <p>Many companies are facing difficulties such as sales reduction due to the changing of consuming behavior during the period of crises. However, this research aims to understand consumer behavior, and identify influences on consumer behavior during environmental uncertainty, as well as, providing a conclusion for companies to handle the issues related to consumer needs during environmental uncertainty and crisis like COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, managers are getting confused during the process of making marketing decisions. In addition, COVID-19 as a result of being a global pandemic, the global economy greatly affected and led to a financial crisis caused by the occurred lockdown, where the impact is not due to the disparity between supply and demand as the previous financial crisis.&nbsp;The researchers distributed questionnaires electronically during COVID-19 lockdown to analyze the consumer behavior in two cities of Iraq by using SPSS software, Cronbach’s Alpha, and Person Correlation were used to test the four hypotheses of research. The researchers concluded that environmental uncertainty clearly effects on the principles of consumer behavior. Moreover, during crises and pandemics such as COVID-19, the behavior of consumers is going to be changed. Additionally, the main findings were the positive relation of consumers' behavior with the price, quality, and the availability of product. While, there is a negative relation with advertisements.</p> Manaf B. Raewf Thabit H. Thabit Yaser A. Jasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 50 55 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp50-55 The Role of Transformational and Transactional Leadership as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Education System <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of Transformational and Transactional Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) among secondary school Teachers. The survey conducted among Teachers in Eight Secondary schools located in the Heet City of Iraq. The study utilized the questionnaire as a tool to collect the data. Likewise, the study employed a stratified technique sample due to the different number of teachers in each school. However, to ensure equal distribution, the stratified technique was more suitable for this study. 174 valid questionnaires analyzed by analysis of moment structures (AMOS). The results indicated both leadership style, Transformational and Transactional had a positive and significant impact on OCBs. However, the results showed that transformational leadership more essential to enhance the OCBs among teachers than the Transactional leadership style.</p> Alaa S. Jameel Sameer S. Hamdi Aram H. Massoudi Abd Rahman Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 56 62 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp56-62 A Pedagogical Stylistic Study of “Eleven” by Sandra Cisneros <p>Knowing about the linguistic and stylistic features of any literary texts in general and the aspect of lexical pattern in particular, concerning the way through which the author uses adjectives, verbs, nouns and adverbs provide us with precious information that can be helpful in judging about the appropriateness of the text to be used for a specific purpose such as teaching to EFL students in a specific level. Therefore, according to the importance of this issue, and based on the checklist of linguistic and stylistic categories proposed by Leech and Short (2000), the stylistic analysis of the short story entitled “Eleven” written by Sandra Cisneros was performed in this study from the lexical category dimension. In the end, the results and findings of the study are elaborated and discussed, with the conclusion that the author was successful in using the appropriate diction and linguistic features to express her main points from the tongue of an Eleven-year-old kid who is also ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, two and one year old.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Lexical category, Eleven, Stylistic analysis, EFL, Short story</p> kameran N. Abdullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 63 66 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp63-66 Knowledge Sharing among Academic Staff in the Higher Education Institution <p>Organizational success relies heavily on knowledge sharing. Having a knowledge-sharing philosophy within an organization has a significant impact on its success because it stimulates staff's desire to address the organization's challenges and concerns. This study aims to examine the effect of attitude, Subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on knowledge sharing among academic staff—the study conducted among academic staff at three private universities located in Erbil. The data were collected by questionnaires method, 163 valid questionnaires analyzed by Structural Equation Modelling SEM, Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) after ensuring validity and reliability. The results showed a positive and significant impact of attitude, Subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on knowledge sharing among academic staff. As well, perceived behavioral control had a major impact on knowledge sharing followed by Subjective norm. The university should support academics and establish innovative climates and norms to develop positive attitudes in the organization to enable university staff to share their knowledge.</p> Alaa S. Jameel Aram H. Massoudi Azwar M. Qasim Agha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 67 74 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp67-74 Factors Affecting on Knowledge Sharing Among Undergraduate Students <p>The purpose of this study is to exam the impact of trust, attitude, and information communication Technology on Knowledge sharing among undergraduate students. However, previous studies paid little attention to exam knowledge sharing among students, particularly in the Iraq setting. The study conducted at Cihan University-Erbil, Iraq, in the College of Administrative and Financial Sciences. The data collected by the questioner tool and the questioners randomly distributed among students by self-administrative. the data were analyzed by AMOS software. The results showed that all three variables, namely trust, attitude, and information communication technology, have a positive and significant impact on Knowledge sharing among undergraduate students. However, trust showed is the most vital factor that enhances and increases the sharing of knowledge among students. University should improve the culture of knowledge sharing among students to increase their productivity and knowledge<strong>.</strong></p> Walaa J. Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 75 81 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp75-81 The Motivational Impact of Enhancing Reading Comprehension through Pictorial Fictions on the Involvement of Iranian EFL Students in Writing Activities <p>Determining the motivational impact of enhancing reading comprehension, through pictorial fictions, on the EFL students to involve them more in writing activities, is the prime purpose of the present study. The study took place in the Iranian Language Institute (ILI), the branch of Mahabad. Key English Test (KET) administrated to a hundred students to select the subjects of the present study. Finally, 60 male students were selected and randomly divided into the experimental and control groups. The experimental group received pictorial fictions as treatment, utilizing input reading comprehension enhancement through typographic elements, and direct and indirect feedback provided to them, while the control group received pictorial fiction texts without such inputs, then to collect the intended data, the "Academic Writing Motivation Questionnaire" (AWMQ) was administered to both groups separately in two stages of pre-tests and post-tests. The results showed that enhancing reading comprehension has a significant motivational impact on the writing engagement of Iranian EFL learners.</p> Fereydoon Rasouli Omid Ahmadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 5 1 82 87 10.24086/cuejhss.v5n1y2021.pp82-87