Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(CUEJHSS) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUEJHSS a periodical journal publishes original researches in the Arabic, Kurdish and English langauges, and in all areas of Social Sciences, including Humanities, Economics, Law, etc.CUEJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUEJHSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has no article processing charge (APC). CUEJHSS applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. CUEJHSS Section Policy includes Original Research Articles.&nbsp; CUEJHSS has p-ISSN:&nbsp;2709-8648. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-6342#">2707-6342</a> and a member of the Crossref a doi: <a href="http://doi.org/10.24086/issn.2707-6342">10.24086/issn.2707-6342</a></span></p> Cihan University-Erbil en-US Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2707-6342 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> The Effect of Probe Thinking Strategy (Application of Principles) on Acquisition of Some Basic Offensive Skills in Handball https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/979 <p>Probe thinking is the structure that emerges from the interaction between the student and what he encounters, rather than what he is taught, and thinking that is focused on posing questions and coming up with solutions, the spark that keeps a learner interested. Therefore, the present study was an attempt to investigate the possible effect of probe thinking strategy on acquisition of some basic offensive skills in handball. A control group and an experimental group were utilized in a pre-post-test design. Following the pre-test, the experimental group received the treatment whereas the control group did not. For the analysis, 20 learners from Cihan University-Erbil, Iraq, were taken into consideration. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the statistical analysis (i.e., Independent samples t-test) in terms of how the two groups performed on the pre- and post-tests. The results revealed that the use of probe questions strategy is effective for the Sports Sciences students to get better results regarding pass-test, dribble-test, and shot-test. The findings of the present study can benefit all the educators and the students as well to have a better performance in practical courses. At the same time, these results can be double checked for the other sports so that they can be generalized to all the branches of Sports Sciences.</p> Dana A. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 8 1 1 6 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp1-6 Acceptability of Google Translate Machine Translation System in Translation from English into Kurdish https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/974 <p>The development of Machine Translation (MT) systems and their application in performing translation projects gave a crucial position to the evaluation of these systems’ outputs. Recently, the Google Translate MT system added the central accent of the Kurdish language to its language list. The current study is an attempt to evaluate the acceptability of the translated texts produced by the system. Different text typologies have been considered for the study's data. To evaluate the MT outputs, the Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU) evaluation model has been administered. The findings show that the performance of the understudy MT system in the translation of English into the Sorani accent of Kurdish is affected by some linguistic and technical hindrances, which in general affect the acceptability of translated text.</p> Fereydoon Rasouli Soma Soleimanzadeh Keivan Seyyedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 8 1 7 14 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp7-14 Code Switching by Novice Teachers in EFL Classes and its Effects on Students https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/977 <p>Code Switching (CS) is shifting from one language to another in a dialogue, a lesson, a sermon, etc. It is used across the board in multilingual communities deliberately and unconsciously. It has many benefits. It has many negative impacts, though. It might distract students’ attention and result in opposite consequences. Therefore, in this study, using CS by novice teachers who do not have enough experience as a medium of explaining the taught material. Besides, it takes into consideration students’ attitudes toward CS as positive or negative. If they understand better after implementing CS, they consider it positive. If, on the contrary, distracts their attention, they consider it negative. The data for this study were collected from 70 students through distributing an open questionnaire and direct observation. They were analyzed using IBM SPSS. The outcomes proposed that some students switch codes at the level of words to have a smooth conversation with colleagues. However, some novice lecturers tend to explain the whole lesson using students’ first language to make sure that they have grasped it well. They do so due to the lack of experience and shortage of vocabulary. The results also pinpointed that some students have a positive reaction toward CS, yet there are many students who do not prefer following it.</p> Huda Y. Abdulwahid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 8 1 15 22 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp15-22 Teachers’ Anxiety-relieving Techniques for Academic Success https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/980 <p>Although it is fairly obvious that student stress and anxiety have a negative impact on students’ academic performance, the role that teachers can play in easing these difficulties is frequently overlooked. The purpose of this study is to discover the techniques employed by teachers to help students who are anxious about speaking English and to determine the effects of those strategies. This study makes use of a qualitative approach. The participants of this study included six lecturers from English Department of Cihan University-Erbil. The obtained data through interview are analyzed descriptively. Peer group and fun activities are two of those techniques that those teachers have used and they could enhance student self-assurance, communication abilities, and collaborative learning. Moreover, relaxing, inspiring, and entertaining are the impact of doing some fun activities by them to alleviate the anxiety level of students.</p> Marjan Abbasian ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 8 1 23 28 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp23-28 The Effect of Lean Methodology on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Performance https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/971 <p>As the demands of English language learners should be satisfied, the question of various teaching techniques has become contentious in classrooms. Lean, a cutting-edge approach, provides a successful way to learn a language. Teachers must employ efficient teaching strategies to accomplish their goals and excite learners. The current study looked into how teaching English as a second language affected students' ability to read comprehension. A control group and an experimental group were utilized in a pre-post-test quasi-experimental design. Following the pre-test, the experimental group received the treatment whereas the control group did not. For the analysis, 40 language learners from a language school in Erbil, Iraq, were taken into consideration. Lean was also disseminated to the participants to help them determine their aims before being applied as a teaching approach to the students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the statistical analysis (i.e., Independent samples t-test). In terms of how the two groups performed on the pre- and post-tests. It was discovered that the scores were different in a significant manner. This brand-new Lean education strategy has been demonstrated in this research conducted in the context of Iraq to improve learning outcomes (in this case, reading comprehension skills), complete the curriculum on schedule, and eliminate any specific waste.</p> Samrand Amini Ahmed A.A Abd Ali Shirin Shiralizadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 8 1 29 33 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp29-33 The Role of Artificial Intelligence Application in Strategic Marketing Decision-Making Process https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/972 <p>This review article examines artificial intelligence (AI)’s role in strategic marketing decision-making. The researchers interviewed experts with experience in decision-making and used Carrefour Iraq as a case study to identify themes on how humans use AI for better strategic marketing decision-making. The key themes in this review were factors such as big data, efficiency, quality, trust and limitations for prediction. The study has also looked into the marketing aspect of these themes within the scope of this research. The findings indicate that AI is recognized as a tool that may support humans in making strategic decisions in marketing. However, AI can technically make such decisions without human intervention; people do not want to give AI complete autonomy in decision-making. Furthermore, the result implies that rather than making decisions independently, AI is more frequently applied to enhance strategic decision-making. It suggests that Al aims to improve decision making-making rather than supplant people in daily life. In addition, the study makes the case that Al can assist humans in making better decisions by forecasting future scenarios that consider a particular action consequence.</p> Aram H. Massoudi Sahar J. Fatah Mohammed S. Jami ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 8 1 34 39 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp34-39 Teachers’ Strategies to Build and Maintain Rapport with Students at Department of Medical Biochemical Analysis, Cihan University-Erbil https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/989 <p>Building and maintaining rapport between teachers and students, and their effect on student’s learning outcomes and classroom environment, this research examines which strategies lecturers use to build and maintain rapport with their students at the Medical Biochemical Analysis department at Cihan University-Erbil. Participants (N=100) answered open-ended survey questions about strategies for rapport-building. A total of (12) strategies for building and maintaining rapport include: using the whole first day, exercising self-disclosure, recognizing students, becoming acquainted with students, being accessible, starting warmly, emphasizing student-centered learning, gathering student feedback, authenticity, listening to students, respecting students, and fairness/ being even-handed. Furthermore, ten educators were interviewed to determine the approach they employed to establish and sustain a positive learning atmosphere and achieve successful results. The findings suggest a moderate correlation between educators and learners, with the latter searching for their instructors to exhibit affirmative dispositions in augmenting their academic achievements.</p> Dashne A. Saeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 8 1 40 50 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp40-50 Organizational Culture’s Involvement Dimension and Academic Staff Task Performance https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/1034 <p>The influence of empowerment, team orientation, and capability development dimensions of involvement on academic staff’s task performance at Cihan University-Erbil is examined in this paper. By shedding light on the link between these involvement characteristics and academic staff task performance, this study adds to the body of knowledge in the field of organizational behavior and management. This research uses a quantitative methodology. Based on well-known theories and scales for task performance, empowerment, team orientation, and capability development, a questionnaire is created. Academic staff members from Cihan University-Erbil’s various departments make up the sample. To guarantee representation and generalizability of the results, a random sampling approach is used. The study contributed to the body of knowledge on involvement performance in this setting by demonstrating how academic staff task performance was positively impacted by empowerment, team orientation, and capability development. Furthermore, the results offer significant perspectives for academic staff and university administrators on how to raise the degrees of empowerment, team orientation, and capability development to enhance academic staff task performance.</p> Raad A. Shareef ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 8 1 51 58 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp51-58 A Linguistic-stylistic Analysis of Lewis Carroll’s Jabberwocky https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/1009 <p>This article attempts at conducting a stylistic analytical study of a renowned poem by Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky. It tries to unveil the variations and schemes of linguistic stylistics that can be found in the poem. Carroll’s famed poem captivates with its linguistic deviations and imaginative storytelling. This scholarly investigation embarks on a comprehensive stylistic analysis of the iconic poem, delving into its distinctive linguistic features. By exploring Carroll’s masterful manipulation of language, especially in the realm of linguistics and stylistics, this research aims at unraveling the poetic brilliance and esthetic allure of Jabberwocky. The inquiry commences with a meticulous examination of Carroll’s artful utilization of linguistic play, boldly challenging conventional language norms and stretching the reader’s comprehension. The poem’s unique blend of real and invented words creates boundless creativity. His language exhibits distinctiveness and versatility, employing a diverse array of grammatical and poetic devices to manifest his unique style, thereby adding depth and intrigue to the poem. The methodology entails a comprehensive stylistic analysis based on Geoffrey Leech’s eight models of deviations and schemes. Overall, this article will show how linguistic-stylistic bridges the gap between language and literature studies, enriching researchers’ understanding of poetry within applied linguistics by scrutinizing the poet’s linguistic devices, structures, and effects. The article will encompass a theoretical explanation within the domains of literary analysis, poetic language analysis, and cognitive poetry in the realm of linguistic analysis.</p> Shokhan M. Fatah Areen A. Muhammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 8 1 59 64 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp59-64 The Effect of Task-based Language Teaching on Speaking Skill https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/962 <p>The goal of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) is to assist learners in acquiring a subconscious understanding of the language, allowing them to engage effortlessly and spontaneously in communication. The present study aimed to investigate the students' attitudes towards the impact of group oral presentations on the improvement of their speaking skills. Specifically, it employed a task-based approach to teach technical English to second-year architectural engineering students at Cihan University-Erbil. Data for this study were collected through the use of a survey questionnaire. The students' feedback revealed a positive attitude towards group oral presentations and their active participation in speaking activities. However, the teachers' observations indicated that there was no notable improvement in the students' pronunciation skills. They were unable to enhance the grammatical precision of their presentation either. Generally, this approach motivated them to take part in speaking activities more. &nbsp;</p> Fereshteh M. Azizifard ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 8 1 65 71 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp65-71 Rhetorical Analysis of Engagement in Discussion Section of Doctoral Dissertations Written by Kurdish Native Speakers https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/1016 <p>Academic writing is commonly regarded as a means to facilitate communication between authors and readers. As a result, scholars are expected not only to present information about the external world through their texts but also to employ language to acknowledge, construct, and foster social connections. Textual engagement requires significant linguistic and cognitive effort, regardless of the writers’ backgrounds. It involves complex knowledge, skills, and familiarity with social practices, which require explicit teaching and time. Even native English speakers find it challenging to acquire the necessary academic skills and social practices of the academic setting due to the discursive nature of higher education. This study aimed to explore the level of engagement in the discussion sections of applied doctoral dissertations written by Kurdish native speakers. To achieve this objective, the researcher analyzed eight randomly selected doctoral dissertations in applied linguistics authored by Kurdish native speakers, employing Martin and White’s (2005) framework. The study identified each dialogic engagement resource’s frequency of occurrence and functions, providing explanations and examples. The findings indicated that the writers being studied utilized different dialogic resources for engaging in conversation with their potential audience. Additionally, they preferred to employ resources that fostered expansive dialogue more often than those that limited it, possibly to reduce the chances of encountering rejection or opposition.</p> Keivan Seyyedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 8 1 72 76 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp72-76 The Role of British Diplomats in Yazidis Affairs in Iraq 1932-1939 https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/1072 <p>Studying the history of minorities in Iraq has been&nbsp; an important field of interest for many scholars. This study (The Role of British diplomats in Yazidis Affairs in Iraq1932- 1939) is an attempt to present and analyze the role of the British diplomats&nbsp; towards the affairs relating to Yazidi minority in Iraq during a very important period in the latter’s cotemporary history. The Yazidis who had been living in Sinjar&nbsp; a sub-district of Mosul in northern Iraq had been&nbsp; in continuous conflict with Ottoman authorities . This was partly due to their refusal to perform mandatory military service, (compulsory conscription,) and paying taxes. Ottoman campaigns were conducted against them to subjugate them by force to Ottoman rule. This was the reason for their isolating themselves&nbsp; in the mountainous area far from the city center. When British had developed an influence in Iraq an opportunity was presented to the Yazidis to defend themselves. Their leaders asked British authorities to defend&nbsp; their interests and to help them get rid of the oppression of the Ottomans. For the purpose of establishing British influence among the Yazidis , the former&nbsp; called the Yazidi leaders to hold a conference and issue a plea to the&nbsp; British authorities in Iraq to include them under British protection. Britain was planning&nbsp; to set up a Yazidi princedom in Sinjar to serve as a buffer between Iraq and Syria, kipping Frances away from oil field.</p> Rashid M. Muhammed Othman A. Ali Shakhawan A. Saber ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 8 1 77 82 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp77-82 The State of Special Needs in the Iraqi Higher Education Context https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/942 <p>This paper delves into a comprehensive investigation of the current situation faced by students with special needs (SSNs) and learning disabilities (LDs) across various educational levels. It aims to shed light on the existing challenges experienced by these learners in primary, secondary, and higher education settings. To ensure the validity of the findings, this study adopts a multi-method approach that combines observation, interviews, and an extensive review of relevant literature in the field. By employing observational techniques, researchers closely observe the daily experiences of SSN students within educational environments. Interviews are conducted with students, teachers, and parents to gain valuable insights into their perspectives and understand the specific difficulties they encounter. In addition, the study thoroughly examines prior scholarly works and research papers related to SSN and LD, enhancing the breadth and depth of the investigation. Upon culmination, this paper presents a set of recommendations directed toward the teaching staff, administrative personnel, and the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. These suggestions aim to foster an inclusive and supportive educational ecosystem that caters to the unique needs of SSN students. They encompass strategies for curriculum development, teacher training, classroom accommodations, and administrative policies, which collectively contribute to enhancing the learning experience and overall well-being of SSN learners.</p> Imadin M. Zannrni Laila B. Shareef ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 8 1 83 86 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp83-86 Reviewing Southern Africa’s Status as a Developmental Region through Governance and Development https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/986 <p>This case study discusses how the democratic governance principles and norms impact development in the SADC, and how institutional and structural reforms require greater participation by society to address the governance challenges encountered in this subregion of Africa. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to examine and assess the relationship between SADC’s governance, democratic principles and norms, development plans and processes. A comparative analysis was conducted using SADC’s key democratic achievement connected to policies, processes, and remaining challenges. Subsequently, the key causes of SADC’s slow development on the African continent were explored, focusing on the failure to institutionalise liberal democratic governance consistently during postcolonial transition periods, speculating SADC’s slow development. The findings suggest that SADC is impacted by democratic principles, norms, and processes, such as local governance, civil society, and decentralisation of power. Bearing in mind Southern Africa’s economic frailty, elevated levels of civil unrest and poor service delivery, SADC authorities require a strong sub-regional governance strategy supported by robust national programmes to determine and overcome the factors hindering the institutionalisation of democratic principles in SADC, and promote strengthened institutional capacity. The unambiguous progression towards the consolidation of democracy, within the SADC, has impacted the governance and development successes of the region, resulting in democratic values and practices remaining shallowly rooted, and slow progress toward open and transparent governance.</p> Juliet E. Joseph ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-20 2024-04-20 8 1 87 97 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp87-97 A Philosophical View on Love and the Concept of Soulmates in Paulo Coelho’s Brida https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/1076 <p>Paulo Coelho’s novel <em>Brida </em>(1990) takes readers on a transformative journey of self-discovery and spiritual exploration. This paper delves into the novel’s profound themes of love, the protagonist’s quest for personal authenticity and the concept of soulmate. Brida, the young and curious protagonist, embarks on a voyage to uncover her true self and find her place in the realm of magic and spirituality. Throughout her encounters with wise mentors and spiritual experiences. This abstract examines how the concept of soulmate and love intertwines with Brida’s self-discovery, allowing her to shed societal constraints and discover her authentic identity. By analyzing the novel with applying Jean Paul Satre’s philosophical theories concerning love and existentialism. The study focuses on intricate narrative and poignant insights, it sheds light on the transformative power of finding the love for the being and the profound impact of self-discovery on one’s journey towards personal authenticity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ala B. Ahmed Meram S.S. Mohamad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 1 98 102 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp98-102 The Effect of Learners’ Self- directed Study on Willingness to Communicate https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/1092 <p>Self-directed study is a crucial need for learners to emphasize its central role in language education. Fostering and improving students’ ability to take initiative in their learning is considered crucial, for achieving success in both the present and future career. Additionally, recognizing the significance of being open to communication willingness to communicate works as a measure of learning, which can lead to attitudes, among students. This paper aims at finding out the relationship and the effect of learners’ self -directed motivation on willingness to communicate by answering the following questions. Is there any relationship between self-direction and willingness to communicate? Does self -direction have a positive impact on willingness? The paper examines willingness to communicate of 3<sup>rd</sup> grade students in English Department, from Collage of Basic Education at Salahaddin University –Erbil for the academic year 2022–2023. The participants are (60) students. The paper conducted through quantitative method. The data have been collected by a questionnaire and the tool adopted for analyzing the data is Statistical Package for&nbsp;the&nbsp;Social Science (SPSS). It is concluded that the most common factors that influence on students’ willingness to communicate are motivation, reliance, and anxiety about making mistakes and challenging situations. Another concluding point is that, students were unwilling to utilize only English while expressing an idea or discussing a matter with classmates or teachers. Moreover, Students referred to linguistic factors represented as indicative of their preference in taking more foreign courses and feeling comfortable in the classroom.</p> Zahraa S. Qarani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 1 103 106 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp103-106 The 2000–2008 Economic Crisis in Zimbabwe https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/987 <p>Between 2000 and 2008, Zimbabwe was hit by one of the devastating economic situations which threatened the lives of businesses and also led to the closure of several businesses. The main purpose of this paper was to trace the survivors of Zimbabwe’s 2000-2008 economic distress and establish the strategies they employ to avert future economic pandemics in the country. A mixed research approach was utilised to carry out the study, with data being collected from a sample of 105 business people and their employees in rural Zimbabwe. A self-designed questionnaire and interview guide were used to solicit data from participants with descriptive and thematic analysis data analysis methods being utilised as data analysis tools. The study revealed that while a significant number of businesses closed their businesses due to the economic downturn some survived and self-rejuvenated and moved on in 2009 when the economy stabilised. The strategies most businesses in rural areas employ to avert effects of future economic distress include among others; 1) diversification, 2) trading in foreign currency, 3) avoiding selling goods on credit, and 4) keeping savings in USD and traditional banks. It was recommended that businesses in rural areas need to manage their businesses in a more professional way so that they do not easily get affected by socio-economic shocks and political upheavals.</p> Takupiwa Nyanga ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 8 1 107 114 10.24086/cuejhss.v8n1y2024.pp107-114