Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(CUEJHSS) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUEJHSS a periodical journal publishes original researches in the Arabic, Kurdish and English langauges, and in all areas of Social Sciences, including Humanities, Economics, Law, etc.CUEJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUEJHSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has no article processing charge (APC). CUEJHSS applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. CUEJHSS Section Policy includes Original Research Articles.&nbsp; CUEJHSS has p-ISSN:&nbsp;2709-8648. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="">2707-6342</a> and a member of the Crossref a doi: <a href="">10.24086/issn.2707-6342</a></span></p> Cihan University-Erbil en-US Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2707-6342 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> A Study of the Reality of Psychological Flow among Students of the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Cihan University-Erbil <p>Psychological flow is one of the best cases of emotional intelligence because it represents the maximum degree in enhancing emotions that serve performance and learning. It prevents the flow of feelings and thus decreases the level of his practical and academic performance.&nbsp;Given the importance of psychological flow in the sports field, the current study aimed to identify the degree of psychological flow among students of the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / Cihan University - Erbil, and to reveal whether there are differences in the level of psychological flow among the sample members due to the variable (university stage).&nbsp;The study followed the descriptive approach in a comparative method, and the sample consisted of (50) male and female students from the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / Cihan University - Erbil and for the four academic stages, they were chosen in a deliberate manner, and the psychological flow scale developed by (Jackson and Marsh) was applied.</p> Zhian J. Othman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 2 1 6 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp1-6 The Crime of Child Abduction in the Criminal Legislation System <p>This research paper deals with the crime of child kidnapping as part of the organized crime system, which feeds various crimes that threaten the safety and stability of society. The real confrontation is not only in the legislative and judicial field but also in the security, social, cultural, and intellectual fields, to be an impenetrable dam against all episodes of organized crime. This fact suggests the necessity of functional and procedural integration to confront criminality, organized crime, and the crime of kidnapping children as part of the overall criminal system, which is manifested by a punitive philosophy to maintain the stability and safety of society.</p> Ausama S. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 2 7 16 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp7-16 The Role of Job Bullying in Promoting Turnover Intention <p>The aim of current study is to know the role of job bullying (public screaming, deprivation of the use of resources, constant criticism, unjustified pressure) in promoting the turnover intention from the point of view of a sample of employees in the General Directorate of Tourism in Sulaimania- Kurdistan Region – Iraq. To achieve this objective and answering the study question , the descriptive analytical method with linear regression model were applied , and the data collected through primary source that are from questionnaires of population consist of (287) individuals, and (200) forms were distributed in a random sampling method , of which (170) were returned, just (161) were valid for statistical analysis. The research concluded that there is a correlation between job bullying and the turnover intention, and the existence of an impact of job bullying in strengthening the &nbsp;turnover intention, and accordingly, the research presented a set of recommendations, the most important of which is the need to encourage employees in the General Directorate of Tourism to know Legal knowledge of their duties and rights, and realize cultural diversity, and the internal environment climate to protect themselves from harm and exploitation.</p> Dalia K. Faeq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 2 17 26 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp17-26 The Effect of Blood Groups on the Positive Personality of Female Students of Faculties of Physical Education in the Universities of the Kurdistan Region - Iraq <p>The concept of blood is no longer confined to being the vital fluid responsible for blood transfusion and the exchange of vital processes, but rather it is an incubator of the genetic codes. In this research, the researcher tries to verify the identification of the nature of blood groups and whether there is a relationship and impact on the positive personality of female students of physical education colleges and universities in the Kurdistan region. The researcher used the descriptive approach for its relevance and the nature of the research, and the research community included female students of faculties of physical education in the universities of the Kurdistan Region and includes universities (Koya, Sulaymaniyah, Salah al-Din, Soran, Garmian, Dohuk), and the researcher adopted the intentional method in his selection of the community. As for the research sample, it represented (200) female students of the faculties of physical education, and thus the research sample represented (80%) of the research sample. After collecting and unloading the data, it was processed statistically using the statistical program (SPSS).</p> khalid H. Abdulla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 2 27 34 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp27-34 The Russian-Chinese Strategic Competition and its Impact on the Structure of the International System <p class="Text" style="margin: 0in 0in 12.0pt 11.0pt;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 105%; font-family: 'Arabic Typesetting';">The current international system is characterized by the presence of many variables that deserve study and research, perhaps the most prominent of which is the rise of new international powers on the world scene, which directly changes the structure of the international system and moves the international hierarchy effectively, especially after the United States took control of the top of the international pyramid since 1989 until today. Russia and China are at the forefront of the candidate countries for the expected political movement, due to their enormous political, military and economic powers, which requires policy and international relations researchers to focus on analyzing the reality of the two countries and their components and the challenges they face on their way to the international pyramid.&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 105%; font-family: 'Arabic Typesetting';">The research stems from a scientific hypothesis that the world today is living in a state of multipolarity without an official announcement of the influence of the rest of the international powers, of which China and Russia are the most prominent). The world has a balance of international forces that contribute to the restructuring of the international system in a manner consistent with the new international changes represented by the globalized economy and the increasing influence of international organizations and their interventions in state policy such as the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and multinational companies.</span></p> Enas D. Mahdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 2 35 51 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp35-51 Protection of Women and Children in Light of the Provisions of International Humanitarian Law during Armed Conflict <p>Armed conflicts, whether international conflicts arise between states or non-international armed conflicts that break out on the territory of one country, they are often beyond the scope of the battle given the use of the modern, long-term and widespread war machine. It devoured everything that stood before it, and the destruction of states and peoples, whether the victor or the vanquished, and it resulted in serious and severe violations against the human being, especially women, children and the elderly.&nbsp;Throughout history, this group has suffered from the scourge of wars and violence that falls upon them as a result of armed conflicts, humiliation and the loss of dignity. They are the first victims that result in armed conflicts. Violence directed at them is unjustified and exaggerated and directed against them as if they were military targets.&nbsp;In order to protect them and limit their targeting, the rules of international humanitarian law contained in the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the 1977 Protocols 1977 included provisions on the protection of civilians, in particular the Fourth Geneva Convention on the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of Armed Conflict, and the procedures to be followed to address violations of the rights of women and children as part of The civilian population, like other protected groups, also has special protection, as well as combatants, as it is obligatory and binding on all states parties to the agreement. And take international responsibility when violating the rules of legal protection.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Layla I. Abuilkassem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 2 52 61 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp52-61 Returning to Kant and Escape from Hegel <p>After the death of Hegel, philosophy (idealism) was affected by transformations and new questions that arose due to the development in science. One of the reasons philosophers were challenged was their attitudes toward science. Hence the call to return to 'Kant'. But if we ask here: What does return to 'Kant' mean? Did he become old or forgotten after his death, especially after Hegel’s dominance of the philosophical space? Or that his philosophy was and still is one of the philosophical pillars, not only within the scope of German philosophy alone but within modern philosophy as a whole. Therefore, the research discusses the dimensions of the return to the philosophy of 'Kant' and its new appearance, which opened new horizons in the history of philosophy. 'Kant' has been influential and inspiring to many of Heglian’s later philosophers. Note that one of the connotations of return means that 'you' was an indispensable reference. As for the other indication, it does not exceed. That is, it does not precede it easily and does not become obsolete in some way. On the other hand, there is a call to return to Hegel in different contexts and stages as well. Therefore, the return discourse does not concern 'I was alone, but there are objective and subjective motives that motivate researchers to return to them. One of the motives, for example, is the attitude of both philosophers towards science and the adoption of the scientific view in philosophical thinking.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nawzad J. Hamafaraj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 6 2 62 72 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp62-72 The Title in Kurdish Electronic Media <p style="font-weight: 400;">The title is the most important part of the text, it is the threshold or the portal that we get into the world of text. In the media texts, the title is composed of a number of functions, some related to the promotional area, the nature of these texts and their structure, and others the function of the media as a communication process. In other words, the function of the title in the field of information is derived from the functions of the media and its serious responsibility in the community, a function.&nbsp;This research (The Title <span lang="EN">in Kurdish Electronic Media, Study of Political News on Kurdistan24 as a Model)</span>focuses on the issue of stylistic and informational aspects by standing at the smallest structures of the titles and analyzing them, and then diagnosing the types of news titles, using&nbsp; the speech analysis methodology of the sample Consisting of (86) expert titles, published on the website (Kurdistan 24), in a &nbsp;period of time, one month<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA">.</span></p> Hawzhin O. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-10 2022-07-10 6 2 73 82 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp73-82 The Relation of Social Media to the Family Security <p>The family is the first individual growth cell in the community, and with the family's support, the safety of the members will be relatively safe, but divorce is the greatest threat to the family. The primary purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the use of social media and family's security, as in this research, the method (description - through community surveys, for example, to describe, evaluate, reach conclusions, and determine the level of relationships between the use of social media to family security, especially divorce. Therefore, those 170 people, who were married in Erbil, are considered as good samples in this survey.&nbsp;As shown in the research, data, and statistics from the Supreme Judicial Council in the Kurdistan Region, show that the increase in divorce rates in Kurdistan coincides with the further expansion of social media in Kurdistan, thereby raising social networks awareness, including Facebook and Instagram raising concerns about the safety of the family, and the lives of spouses. It is worth mentioning that it has become one of the main causes of the couple's divorce.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hemin A. Jalal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-10 2022-07-10 6 2 83 98 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp83-98 The Rise of the Chinese Role in the Middle East and its Reflection on Regional Security <p>Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the People’s Republic of China’s interest in the external role based on economic tools has increased in order to reach the maximum benefit for the Chinese national interests. This role has been accompanied by the intensification of competition between the major countries in different regions. The Middle East region’s share was the largest in this competition. China has close interests in the Middle East based on energy and markets, and these interests have increased to enter the political and security fields with the changes taking place in the region, until it has reached advanced stages in competing with the influence of the traditional major powers in the region (the United States of America and Europe).&nbsp;In the last decade, the extent of Chinese involvement in the region's issues has increased, which has begun to pose an economic and strategic threat to the influence of the traditional major powers, and as this threat represents a direct reflection on the security situation in a soft region such as the Middle East, the interest in examining the future effects of this Chinese rise has increased. In the aspects of security, economics and politics.</p> Mohanad A. Rashed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-20 2022-07-20 6 2 99 108 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp99-108 The Mediating Role of Palestinian University Governance in the Impact Relationship between Digital Transformation and Institutional Innovation <p>The main aim of this study is to identify the mediating role of Palestinian university governance in the ‎relationship of influence between digital transformation and institutional innovation‏ ‏The researchers ‎relied on the descriptive analytical approach, and the use of the questionnaire tool, which was ‎distributed to a sample of (90) individuals, randomly selected from the study population consisting of ‎a dean, deputy dean, department head, department director, faculty ‎members/accounting/administration) in the Palestinian universities in the Gaza Strip. The results ‎showed that the mediating variable, the governance of Palestinian universities, mediates a partial ‎mediation in the relationship of influence between digital transformation and institutional innovation. ‎Knowing that the results showed a positive correlation between digital transformation and institutional ‎innovation without introducing the governance of Palestinian universities, it was found that there is a ‎positive effect between digital transformation and corporate governance. Palestinian universities, ‎where digitization has become an essential thing in the educational process‏.‏The study recommended ‎the need to pay attention to the existence of a flexible and dynamic technical university governance ‎environment that keeps pace with the present and future development, and the need to promote digital ‎transformation in Palestinian universities to keep pace with technological progress toward institutional ‎innovation and to confront any future conditions that affect the continuity of the educational process‏.‏</p> Abd Elrahman‎ M. Rashwan Etidal M. ‎Al-Helou Essam M. ‎Al-Taweel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 6 2 109 122 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp109-122 The phenomenon of Armed Violence and its Relationship to the Weakness of the State and the Human Rights Crisis <p class="Text" style="margin: 0in 0in 12.0pt 11.0pt;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 105%; font-family: 'Arabic Typesetting';">Since our father Adam (peace be upon him) left the highest paradise to reach the earth, and with the coincidence of the eternal struggle between good and evil and the challenge that the forces of evil swore to continue forever and ever, various types of hostility and various forms of intolerance appeared, until the types of fanaticism became numerous according to any natural difference between Humans and other creatures and left behind the types of wars and conflicts that needed various machines and tools that developed with the development of conflicts and conflicts, and became imported and exported, and countries and empires sheltering in them are based on them, and economies thrive and die with the prosperity and extinction of the arms trade, and accordingly the research discusses the extent to which the arms trade is linked to the transcendence of the causes of crises. Turning it into wars, threatening the stability of the state, and violating human rights.</span></p> <p class="Text" style="margin: 0in 0in 12.0pt 11.0pt;"><span dir="RTL" lang="AR-SA" style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 105%; font-family: 'Arabic Typesetting';">&nbsp;</span></p> Inas D. Mahdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 6 2 123 133 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp123-133 Language and Relationship with Society <p>Language is not just a collection of phrases and words, ultimately playing a fundamental role in shaping the personality of an individual in society based on the mechanism, life experience and history of his nation. Society has many positive and negative effects on language, but the negative effects are more than the positive ones. In Kurdistan, there is lack of accurate information and reliable data continued differences and understanding in all its forms in Kurdish society and the global progress in the field of participation of languages and dialects in all spheres of life (political, social, economic, etc.). The aim of this research is to find a solution to bring the dialects of Kurdish closer together and unite its terms by knowing the degree of influence of society on language, because the experiments of other nations have shown that the existence of these different dialects is the existence of a linguistic chain. Therefore, we must take advantage of this chain and develop our official language. The unification of terms and their use as one among all individuals of different dialects brings the individuals of society closer together. The results show a pathway to establish and correct another way by focusing on using the language to be strong in society. This is achieved via identifying problems and causes, and reminding them of various detailed data and information by writers, sources, books and media, with an explanation of the significance of developing a society with a unified and well-known language.</p> Hunar M. Hussein Hasan Çiftçi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-10 2022-08-10 6 2 134 144 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp134-144 Cybercrime in International Law <p>The research dealt with the electronic crime known by the term (cyber) because of its connection with space, which is the widest field for its perpetration and implementation of its pillars, and it is often between countries or within the state, and because of its importance, multiple definitions have been known and its nature has been defined as a deliberate crime committed to achieve goals harmful to the interests of a person or a certain party. It has characteristics that distinguish it from other acts in terms of its perpetration by a computer, its systems or the information it contains, or it targets the Internet and the sites in which it is, and usually more than one person or entity contributes to it. Or disrupting it, sabotaging it, forging it, and so on.</p> Ibrahim A. Abed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-15 2022-08-15 6 2 145 151 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp145-151 Effectiveness and Efficiency of Legislative Procedures in Exceptional Circumstances <p>The research examines how effectiveness is related to administrative leadership, and how efficiency is related to the management of the organization. To achieve the desired goal, and just as it can be used in the event of emergency and exceptional circumstances, to develop the treatments required by the situation, because in this case it is impossible for the administration to act according to the principle of legality, which is based on the legal rules contained in the constitution and laws in the state to maintain public order.&nbsp;</p> Layla I. Abuilkassem Sameer ‎ S. Hamdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-20 2022-08-20 6 2 152 158 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp152-158 Arbitration in Investment Disputes in Renewable Energy Projects <p>The emerging disputes in the energy sector are the subject of litigation, and with the increase in global demand for energy production from its renewable sources, investments tended to allow the exploration and development of renewable energy sources in countries that may lack in this field, and to encourage investment and investors, it became necessary to have a stable legislative framework that provides binding protection For investors to settle disputes as stipulated in local laws and bilateral and multilateral investment treaties. Renewable energy sources, which take place between the investor and the host country for the investment or one of its agencies, include a set of intertwined topics, in which disagreements and disputes may arise between the two parties. renewable and in a manner that preserves the rights of both parties as well. Therefore, arbitration has become a topic of interest They are in the field of investment contracts in general, and the importance of this method increased after the flourishing of international trade, as it became in the form of international organizations, bodies, and centers.</p> Omer Z. Dhaher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-20 2022-08-20 6 2 159 167 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp159-167 Settlement of International Electronic Contract Disputes by ‎Determining International ‎Jurisdiction for Consideration in ‎Accordance with Iraqi Law <p>The international jurisdiction is competence of the national courts to decide the disputes containing a foreign element. Whereas the rules of the international jurisdiction of the Iraqi courts are the group of legal rules determining the competence of the Iraqi courts to decide the disputes of foreign element, against other foreign courts. And are based upon a group of standards or criteria, well-known as the standards of the international jurisdiction of Iraqi courts. It is worth bearing in mind that the electronic contract is an agreement through which the offer and acceptance are meeting in an open international online network of distance communication, by visual and audible means. Thanks to the interaction between offeror and acceptor. It is also worth-noting that international jurisdiction to settle the disputes of the electronic contract is determined by the traditional standard of the international jurisdiction, through which the jurisdiction of Iraqi courts is concluded, in conformity with the paragraph –C- of the article (15) of the Iraqi Civil Law No. (40) of 1951. Although we tried in this piece of research to attribute the international jurisdiction of Iraqi courts in the disputes relevant of international electronic contracts to some standards provided for by the electronic signature and electronic bargains No. 78 of 2012.</p> Younis S. Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-20 2022-08-20 6 2 168 177 10.24086/cuejhss.v6n2y2022.pp168-177