Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(CUEJHSS) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUEJHSS a periodical journal publishes original researches in the Arabic, Kurdish and English langauges, and in all areas of Social Sciences, including Humanities, Economics, Law, etc.CUEJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUEJHSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has no article processing charge (APC). CUEJHSS applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. CUEJHSS Section Policy includes Original Research Articles.&nbsp; CUEJHSS is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-6342#">2707-6342</a> and a member of the Crossref a doi: <a href="http://doi.org/10.24086/issn.2707-6342">10.24086/issn.2707-6342</a></span></p> Cihan University-Erbil en-US Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2707-6342 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> Justifications for Violating International Law in the Field of Sovereign Equality https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/256 <p>International legal norms are at the forefront of the legal of the humanitarian community, due to the seriousness of the issues concerned with them for the various human groups. Although they all emerge, albeit in different degrees and ways, from the expression of the will of the sovereign nations. I want to acknowledge the mandatory nature of a rule, or the result of a commitment to international social relations. The principle of equality of sovereignty is one of the legal rules, which constitute the basis of commitment. Violations of these rules may occur from some countries, and the justifications are derived from modern international laws. Many factors account for the invisible violation of international legal norms, which cannot be contested because it agrees with them in theory, and its results are unlawful.</p> Layla I. Abu Alqasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 4 2 1 6 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp1-6 The Role of Housing Finance Policies in Reducing the Housing Shortage in Erbil 2005-2017 https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/130 <p>The purpose of this research paper is to analyze the efficiency of housing finance policies, mechanisms, and solutions to the problems experienced by the residential lending institutions in Erbil city, besides to find the reasons of not playing a role in reducing the housing deficit in the city. The research hypothesis is that the housing policies in Erbil city have not been able to reduce the accumulated housing deficit efficiently while there are several methods or procedures capable of establishing an efficient housing finance system based on the participation of the public and private sectors to help to solve the problem of housing finance. However, Erbil city has suffered during the past decades from a big gap between the housing demand and the housing supply. So, this is due to the inability of households to meet their needs of these units, because of the high prices and the limited funding or support for these families to help them to buy or build a housing unit, especially low-income or middle-income families, which constitute a large proportion of households in Erbil. The lack of an efficient housing finance system and its inability to provide support to these families has exacerbated the housing deficit problem and the accumulation of housing need for many years.</p> <p>Further, this research has reached some results, the most important that the method used in Erbil city is granting loans for the construction of a new housing unit, but it does not cover all the costs of construction. The current loan covers only 50-60% of the construction cost. Also, one of the most critical factors affecting the success of housing finance policies is long-term continuity in order to achieve its goals. In Erbil city, there were no completely sustainable policies, but relied on the circumstances of the country and its potential to finance or provide the necessary funds, the lack of continuity has affected the extent to achieve its planned housing goals. As a result, found during the period 2008-2013, the housing market in Erbil could not achieve more than 11% of the housing needs for the same period.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Twana F. Saleh Maria H. Aziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 4 2 7 18 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp7-18 Al-Shareef Al-Razi Al-Balagi's approach in his book https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/74 <p style="direction: rtl;">منهج الشريف الرضي البلاغي في كتابه (تلخيص البيان في مجازات القرآن). لم يُعر الباحثون اهتماما كبيرا بكتاب الشريف الرضي (تلخيص البيان في مجازات القرآن) من الوجهة البلاغية، وهذا كان الدافع الأساس لدراسة كتابه هذا. وتكمن أهمية هذا الكتاب في قدم الزمان الذي ألَّف فيه، إضافة إلى تفرده بدراسة القرآن بلاغيا. وقد قسّمت البحث إلى مبحثين قدمتهما بتوطئة في حياة الرضي العلمية وختمتهما بخاتمة فتوصية، ثم قائمة بالمصادر والمراجع. واعتمدت في دراستي للكتاب على ثلاثة مناهج: المنهج الاستقرائي، فالوصفي، وأخيرا المنهج التحليل. واعتمدت أيضا على نظام "هارفيرد" الأمريكي في توثيق المتن والهوامش والمصادر. وأخيراً، لا أزعم أنني بلغت في هذه الدراسة حدّ الكمال، ولكنني ما تركت من الجهد شيئا، وما أصبت فمن الله تعالى وما أخطأت فمن الشيطان ومن نفسي، والله المستعان.</p> Raad R. Mohamad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 4 2 19 38 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp19-38 Kakai and Their Origins and Beliefs https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/259 <p>This study searches for the kakai minority that mostly resides in Iraqi Kurdistan, which is taken from the Kurdish word Kakah to denote the existence of respect and appreciation and brotherhood among them or between them and their sheikh, and this topic study is important especially for the Kurdish Muslims who live next to them and have contact with them, and the ambiguity is in the origins This religion is one of the most important problems of this study, and we have relied in the research on the deductive approach in taking the topics studied, with the transmission of opinions and the attribution of words based on the original sources, and accuracy in it, while following the analytical approach to what we transfer. We touched on them in terms of their names and their causes, the history of their origins, and the expression of opinions about its foundations, the origins of its creed, its rituals and sanctities, and the places of its existence, by referring to the books written about it and the studies that touched on its statement, an objective historical and scientific study, and in the conclusion I reviewed the most important findings of it</p> Rozhan I. Khurshid Ismail M. Qarany ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-21 2020-07-21 4 2 39 49 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp39-49 International Mechanisms for Protecting Human Rights Throughout United Nations https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/214 <p>In order to perform its functions, the United Nations depends on a group of mechanisms, organs, organizations, and bodies affiliated to it, each of them is linked to it a set of economic, social, political and humanitarian functions and tasks in order to enhance international cooperation in the economic, social, cultural, educational, health and assistance fields. In the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, although the protection of human rights originally is at the core of the actions of the executive and judicial authorities in the state, but what is to be done when the state is the party that violates the principles of human rights? Under the pretext of establishing security, stability and imposing order, especially when it is one of the expected and typical behavior of power in a country, which the United Nations and international organizations, should intervene from&nbsp; either at the request of human rights organizations or by the families of the victims, Although these interventions may not achieve their desired goal and the purpose for which the intervention was taken , especially in the event that force is used to deter a country from its actions the obstacles and difficulties that accompany these interventions vary according to political, economic, legal, or financing.</p> Raqeeb H.R. Saed Najdat S. Aqrawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 4 2 50 61 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp50-61 Change of Security Equations within the Strategy of Energy Security https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/212 <p>Nowadays, the energy factor is considered one of the most important geopolitical factors that affect the security and stability of different regions of the world, especially those rich in oil and natural gas. Therefore, this research revolves around showing the nature of the relationship between the Ministry of Energy and the changes that occur in the security equations of countries due to energy, which in turn affects the creation of a state of stability and security instability for energy sources and the supply of countries. Through this research, we go beyond other recent studies on this topic, and link the most important elements of energy security to equations of stability and instability in energy-exporting and energy-exporting countries. Consequently, we analyze what drives energy-exporting and exporting countries to influence the dynamics of changing security equations in order to secure energy interests in their country. Until the research reached this fact, which, despite the success of some countries in the use of energy as a solid force and to ensure the security stability of their countries with energy ratios, they are generally energy-exporting countries and supplying them, and in order to secure energy security in their countries, they changed their security equations, and led This creates a state of security instability for countries at the national, regional and even international levels.</p> Shallaw A. Mohammed Najdat S. Aqrawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 4 2 62 73 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp62-73 The Role of Measurement and Custom to Complete the Missing Evidence in Criminal Evidence https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/234 <p>The basic principle that governs evidence in International and Internal&nbsp;&nbsp; criminal evidence is the principle of judicial conviction relation to any evidence. This principle can only be achieved by certain means within specific controls, among these means is the measurement and customary in devising the judicial presumption to complete any evidence to complete deficiency. The criminal judge may use the aforementioned means to achieve criminal justice, the principle of achieving right, putting things in perspective, Criminals do not go unpunished, innocent is not condemned, resolving cases as soon as possible, and achieving the principle of fair and just judiciary, which the judges seek internally and internationally</p> Ahmed B. Rasul Majeed K. Al-Sabhawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 4 2 74 83 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp74-83 The Role of Participatory Management in the Effectiveness of Management Decisions https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/161 <p>The aim of the research is to identify the participatory role of the administration with its subdivisions (building the working team, delegating authority, strengthening human relations) in the effectiveness of administrative decisions. The research presented a theoretical and conceptual framework for the main and secondary variables. Korek Telecom was chosen as a field for conducting the research. The importance of the research stems from the importance of the topics examined. The research was systematically and descriptively analyzed, and a set of hypotheses was identified as probative responses to the research problem, which were tested using multiple statistical tools, using the SPSS-V.22 statistical program. The questionnaire was used as a means of obtaining the data. It was distributed to a sample of managers of divisions and divisions in the company. The number of managers was 55, and 51 questionnaires were retrieved and all were valid for analysis. The study concluded that there is a relationship and influence for all dimensions of participatory management in the effectiveness of administrative decisions. The research recommended employing this relationship to serve the investigated company and maintain the high levels of both dimensions of participatory management and administrative decision indicators.</p> Nihayat S. Rahman Razaw A. Hussein Ahlam I. Wali ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 4 2 84 99 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp84-99 Mobil Marketing Relationship with Young Users https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/216 <p>This study aims to identify the concept of mobile marketing because it is one of the most important topics that are usually skipped by our organizations because most of them still work in the traditional way. the main goal is to measure the relationship between mobile marketing and young consumers using statistical analysis tools. This study is important because it deals with one of the vital topics today, namely: How to enable the use of mobile marketing in our environment and its relationship to the acceptance by young consumers of modern marketing techniques. To achieve the aims of the study, 87 questionnaires were distributed to a random sample of mobile phone users, after that the questionnaire were analyzed to find the results on the SPSS program and the relationship between each of the study variables was tested. The research problem can be summarized with the following research questions: Do all young consumers feel satisfied with the ongoing mobile marketing ads shown on their mobile phones? Do mobile marketing ads help consumers make the right buying decision? Do mobile marketing ads help consumers make the right buying decision? Do mobile marketing ads persuade young consumers to change their purchasing decision from one product to another? The study ended with a set of conclusions, the most important of which is the existence of a moral relationship between mobile marketing and young consumers. Based on the findings of the study, a set of recommendations make, the most important of which is the necessity of all companies' interest in building a satisfactory mobile advertising infrastructure, because mobile phones are the easiest way to keep in touch with consumers today. Businesses need to use reliable advertisements that are shown to their target consumers accompanied by real experiences in using the product or service.</p> Bushra A. Zainal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 4 2 100 106 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp100-106 The Legal Nature of the Notary's Obligations Regarding the Validity of the Evidence Documents in Iraqi Law https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/258 <p>The documentation and regulation of bonds is the backbone from legal perspective for all economic system and the basic guarantee of the clients, so the latter is very important and enjoys in all societies an important place. The Iraqi legislator enacted a special law called ‘the law of the Book of Waiver No. (33) of 1998, documenting and organizing such bonds to a legal person and it is named by the notary public. This will give him confidence and credibility in his business, deriving his authority from the law, and enjoys the rights and powers that are not enjoyed by the average person, or other civil servants, and grants to editors who edited the executive and official power are self-executing without the need to file a claim and issue a ruling on the immutable right. On the one hand, the documentation and organization contributes to the achievement of social peace and stability of transactions between individuals. On the other hand, if there is an error on his part, he may have legal responsibility. This is because the legal acts of the notary public are so varied that the obligations and duties of the notary public are intertwined with the stakeholders and auditors. It was necessary to define his obligations and to know the extent of his responsibility and the type of obligation which is imposed by civil law in carrying out his civil duties. In addition, to determine his good faith to ensure documents are documented by him to be his judicial work and to provide security to the clients of the Justice Department. Therefore, it is our goal to demonstrate the legal nature of the civil obligation of the public notary in the validity of official bonds in Iraqi law, and when it is committed to achieve a result or to make care in preparation for adapting its legal responsibility or not.</p> Tahsin H. Smael Shahla M. Aziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 4 2 107 120 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp107-120 Spiritual Leadership Behaviors and their Role in Promoting Professional Ethics https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuejhss/article/view/267 <p>The aim of the research is to determine the extent of commitment of the researched individuals to the ethics of the profession, as well as to measure the nature of the relationship and the impact between the spiritual leadership in its five dimensions and the professional ethics in the research field represented by the Technical Institute in Mosul, and to achieve this goal, the opinions of 92 academics working in the researched organization were examined, and from During the distribution of the questionnaire, data was collected on the practical framework, and the research adopted several statistical hypotheses, including "There is a significant correlation between spiritual leadership with its five dimensions and profession ethics." For the purpose of testing this and other research hypotheses, the method has been adopted Descriptive analytical reading and data processing field. The research ended with the presentation of a set of results, one of which was the commitment of the research sample individuals to the ethics of the profession in the researched organization, as well as proving the research hypotheses.</p> Mohamed E. Ahmed Alaa A. Alani Aram H. Massoudi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-24 2020-09-24 4 2 121 126 10.24086/cuejhss.v4n2y2020.pp121-126