Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences </span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">(CUEJHSS) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUEJHSS a periodical journal publishes original researches in the Arabic, Kurdish and English langauges, and in all areas of Social Sciences, including Humanities, Economics, Law, etc.CUEJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUEJHSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has no article processing charge (APC). CUEJHSS applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. CUEJHSS Section Policy includes Original Research Articles.&nbsp; CUEJHSS has p-ISSN:&nbsp;2709-8648. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="">2707-6342</a> and a member of the Crossref a doi: <a href="">10.24086/issn.2707-6342</a></span></p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> (Prof. Amjad S. Dalawi) (Prof. Salah I. Yhaya) Wed, 11 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Impact of Successive Legal Systems and its Role in the Emergence and Development of the Administrative Judiciary in Iraq <p>The study's significance is underscored by the fundamental concept discussed, namely the impact of the legal system and its role in the emergence of the administrative judiciary in Iraq. The study focuses on the impact of successive legal systems on the emergence, development, and delay of the administrative judiciary at the same time due to the challenges it faced. Therefore, the existence of a specialized, independent, and supported judicial body that adjudicates the dispute between the state or its institutions and individuals is of the utmost importance. Nevertheless, the question arises, how can a newly established and newly administrative judiciary balance the interests of the state with that of individuals in the existence of a legal system that restricts the jurisdiction of the administrative judiciary? By describing the legal systems applied globally and showing their type and stages and the law system applied in Iraq, the study has made several results and conclusions. The legal system is a method taken by a state or a body that imposes its legal obligations on those entities (authorities and individuals) under the principle of legality. Thus, the Constitution is a fundamental source of knowledge of the legal and judicial system of any country. The emergence of the legal system in Iraq can also be traced back to the world's first legal laws, such as Urnmo Law (2365-2357 B.C.), all the way to the current legal system in use in Iraq. The principles were inspired by the 2005 Constitution, which drafted a new legal system through which the state structure was rebuilt.</p> Mohammed N. Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Relationship between Development and Human Rights in Public International Law <p>The research deals with the legal relationship between development and human rights, and starts from the concept of development as a human right, and proceeds towards the legal basis for this relationship through international instruments that included this right, leading to the declaration of the right to development as a global legal document in 1986. Finally, international guarantees to embody the realization of the right in development. The research reached a number of results: The right to development is a composite right of a group of civil, political, economic and social rights. Development is by man and by man, because it’s ultimate goal is the permanent improvement of the well-being of all residents on the basis of their full participation in the development process, and the distribution of benefits resulting in a fair distribution. Since the right to development is part of human rights that are indivisible and waived, and its implementation falls on the shoulders of individuals, states and the international community, so that it is not trapped in international conventions, conferences and declarations, we recommend a set of recommendations: Endorsing the right to equality in the right to development At the national level, by providing opportunities for everyone to access basic resources to satisfy the basic needs represented in: providing food, health care, education, and establishing a special national fund for these three rights. Emphasizing the sovereignty of states over their wealth in order to harness them in realizing the right to development.</p> Layla I. Abu Alqasim, Wael M. Jalal Aldeen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 20 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Managing the Total Quality Management System in Iraqi Universities <p>Many of the Iraqi universities, as well as the universities of the Kurdistan Region, have clearly begun to use the Total Quality Management system, but a set of both theoretical and practical obstacles awaited them, through the presence of laws and instructions that contradict the quality system. This study aimed to clarify the concepts of quality, standards and methods of their application, and the importance of including them in all aspects of the institution and the university. And that is by answering the following question (What is the best way to overcome the obstacles to the application of the total quality system in Iraqi universities?). A questionnaire consisting of 52 items distributed on 8 main axes was used, and from the results of the research, the leadership and communication axes are of the highest quality, and the machines and equipment axes need more attention by the administration, while the rest of the axes were within the model range. In light of the results, some recommendations were developed, the most important of which is to strengthen the role of educational and academic institutions in adopting and developing local or regional standards, in addition to updating local laws and decisions to match the international quality assurance standards for the educational sector.</p> Jawan H. Aljaff, Ahmed J. Majeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 30 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bank Deposit Policy Analysis and its Ingredients for Success in the ‎Kurdistan Region‎ <p>Banks play an important role as an intermediary between the lender and the borrower. In addition, other bank roles are being affected directly or indirectly by the deposits and how to manage those deposits. However, banks are not able to do their duties effectively due to concentrating on current account. Therefore, the researchers studied the process of depositing in private banks operating in Iraq. Moreover, this study shows the participating level of banks in providing loans for the period 2012 – 2016.&nbsp;The results of the study indicated that the bank is using a weak policy to attract deposit. As well as, the highest percentage of deposits was in current accounts. This is the reason beyond the weak role of banks in supporting investments and the economy. Furthermore, researchers recommended the need to reestablish trust and direct deposit funds towards loans, particularly for small and medium-sized enterprises.</p> Mowaffak A. Ali, Manaf B. Raewf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 10 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 US Foreign Policy toward Iran between the Obama and Trump Administrations <p>The variation in the use of foreign policy tools has become a foregone conclusion when the rule of the White House is succeeded by Republicans and Democrats. We find that there is a wide debate in this range between the extents to which strict policy is used under Republican rule, with the resort to adopting a flexible policy with the rule of Democrats.&nbsp;As a result of the divergence of views between the two successive administrations on the rule of the United States, many differences emerged in the tools used by the two administrations in dealing with one of the most important issues that posed a serious challenge to the United States, which was dealing with the Iranian nuclear file, or in general how to deal with Iran as a country characterized by with the dominance of religious ideology over the political thought of running the state, in addition to Iran's use of its religious belief in order to strengthen its position in the region and the world.&nbsp;The divergence of the United States foreign policy tools towards Iran had a great impact on the world as a whole, in that it strengthened the international division in dealing with that policy between compatible and opposing ones, which undermined the unity of the international community, thus giving way to other actors, whether states or others, on international security and peace in a way that affected the political stability of some countries, especially in the Middle East.</p> Amanj A. Othman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 10 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of the E-government System in the Political Reform of State Institutions <p>The e-government system is an advanced stage of the implementation of a comprehensive knowledge-based information program, and it cannot be implemented in the first place, because it does not need preparation at the technical, political, economic and educational levels. In view of the accuracy of the information and communication technology produced in its financial and economic dealings, which is the basis on which the e-government is based, therefore, it can contribute directly to improving the level of political reform in state institutions. And since the issue of political reform of state institutions, especially public sector institutions, is one of the issues of great concern for political and administrative researchers alike, the research tries to find a logical link between the development of electronic administrative work, up to the elements of implementing the e-government system for state institutions and adopting them as a routine in their dealings. The daily link between achieving comprehensive administrative and political reform without the need to exert more efforts in changing the administrative and political leaderships, whose reform behavior within state institutions is difficult to predict. Also, what the electronic government provides in terms of an advanced and neutral supervisory system to a large extent ends what the political and administrative control system suffer from through defects. Bias and favoritism in evaluating the performance of state institutions. Therefore, the research confirms an attempt to prove a basic hypothesis related to the existence of a positive relationship between the development of the e-government system and the increase in political reform in state institutions, by emphasizing a set of basic data linking the two variables of the research, which will be discussed in detail through the research stages</p> Inas D. Mahdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 10 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Level of Ambition and its Relation to the Professional Compatibility of Faculty Members at Private Cihan University-Erbil <p>The current study aims to identify the level of ambition (high - low) of faculty members at the university. Also, to identify the nature of the correlation between levels of ambition (high - low) and the professional compatibility of faculty members at the university. To achieve its objectives, the research was based on a measure of the level of ambition and professional compatibility by following the descriptive approach. &nbsp;The samples of the study were fifty-one faculty members randomly chosen from Cihan University-Erbil. SPSS software program was utilized to process the data. The result shows the majority of university lecturers has high ambition, also there is no correlation between ambition and professional compatibility.</p> Dashne A. Saeed, Sinaa A. Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 10 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Supporting Sustainable Development Processes and Measuring the Impact of Financial Inclusion on Them <p>In this study, the researchers wanted to make sure that current banking practices have the ability to include financial inclusion on three key axes: delivering banking services, and offering services to various community groups. In order to find out whether or not Iraqi banks are capable of promoting sustainable development processes, the researchers discovered that banks may assist by supplying and providing high-quality financial services to diverse socioeconomic groups. When it comes to banking in Iraq, the desire to help the unbanked is behind the push to provide the best services, because the increased recognition of specific groups of people encourages the concept of financial inclusion that contributes to the country's development by facilitating and supporting small-scale projects that build the country's economic system. Furthermore, a 20-item questionnaire and the utilization of the statistical program (STATA) are utilized to assess the validity and reliability of the research hypothesis. For the purposes of testing and evaluating the degree of dependability, the questionnaire's validity and reliability are also checked with a parameter test and measurement. Based on this research, we found that the financial inclusion approach has a positive impact on long-term development processes. One of the most essential recommendations is that a greater understanding of social groups in the banking sector would assist ensure the lasting success of financial inclusion.</p> Sinan A. Harjan, Mustafa S. Abdulrida, Hayder M.K. Alduhaidahawi, Adnan A. Jiyad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 20 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Facebook on Spreading Health Awareness among university Students <p>This Study Seeks to Know the Impact of Facebook's influence on spreading health awareness and the sources of getting it among university students.&nbsp; It also tends to determine the role it plays in spreading health awareness. The data have been collected by distributing a questionnaire consisting of 19 questions to 100 individuals (male and female students) chosen randomly.&nbsp; Their answers have been analyzed with the following&nbsp; results: Most of the sources for obtaining medical and health information among the respondents are from diverse sources including media, specialized medical scientific journals, family, friends and Facebook.&nbsp; All these sources&nbsp; contribute&nbsp; by 26%&nbsp;&nbsp; while Facebook alone&nbsp; contributes by 24%&nbsp; to supply respondents with health information. &nbsp;36% of the respondents confirm the validity of the information they receive from Facebook, while 19% of the respondents&nbsp; confirm the reliability of the health information they receive on Facebook. 38% of the respondents discover that the health information they receive from Facebook is incorrect by noticing inconsistencies and discrepancies in the information and the lack of sufficient medical evidence.&nbsp;&nbsp;About 32% of the respondents are interested in nutrition and diet-related topics.</p> Abeer M. Jabar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 28 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Journalistic Writing Styles on Reading Topics in Hawler Newspaper ‎ <p>This research entitled (The Impact of Journalistic Writing Styles on Reading Topics in Hawler Newspaper) is considered a scientific attempt to find the relationship between reading of journalistic topics and how they are written in Kurdish newspapers, specifically Hawler newspaper as a model. This research was prepared according to the descriptive method by analyzing the content For the writing methods of Hawler newspaper topics between the period (1-2 / 15/2020) and then their impact on its reading by university students, which the researcher took as a sample for research. The research consists of the introduction and three main axes of the topic, the first axis includes (the general framework of the research), and then the second axis includes (the theoretical aspect of the research), which includes (the Techniques of writing and reading in newspapers) in general, then comes the third axis, which is The applied aspect of the research includes questionnaire analysis. In the result, it appears that writing and reading in Kurdish newspapers are linked together, and every media outlet has a set of characteristics for writing topics commensurate with the quality of the medium in attracting readers to it. At the end of the research, the researcher proposes to organize the work of press editing in general and that all media institutions follow a general policy for press editing in proportion to the characteristics of the readers and the way they understand the topics.</p> Aryana I. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Custom in the Occurrence of Divorce <p>The custom of the fundamentalists is what has settled in the souls in terms of testimonies of minds, and a sound character has accepted it, and it is a source of Islamic legislation if it meets the conditions and controls set by our esteemed scholars.&nbsp;If we look at the reality of people in Kurdistan, we find that they are familiar with the use of a conditional divorce or an oath with it to strengthen their resolve or compel others to do or leave something, and they increase the three forms of divorce, either with one word (you divorce three) or by repeating the word (you Divorce, you are divorced, you are divorced) to confirm their divorce and its enlargement, so do these norms of divorce influence the Sharia ruling in terms of its rhythm or non-infliction and its consideration as an oath in the case of a pending divorce? Also, in the case of the three divorce, is their custom of interpreting it with one confirmed shot and not making it three?&nbsp;After examining the rulings on both pending divorce and the three divorce and the sayings of the jurists therein and their evidence from the mothers of the books of jurisprudence and its sources, and presenting the prevailing custom in the two matters to the rules of established custom, it became clear to me that the prevailing custom in the two issues is a legally considered custom and it is correct to be a reliable guide in favoring a statement over say; Therefore, it is more likely for me to say that considering the intention of the divorced, if he wants to suspend his divorce by oath and the oath, his divorce does not take place and the expiation is not required, but if he wants to divorce when the condition is fulfilled, then his divorce takes place, and in the issue of the three divorce issue, it is more correct to say that the three divorce has occurred only one divorce. God grants success.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yunus S. Hussein ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Public Relations in Marketing Management <p>The topic of public relations has received the attention of researchers, management and marketing scholars, in order to keep pace with the rapid developments in the business framework, which is one of the distinguishing features of departments in the new millennium to achieve their marketing objectives. The research problem is crystallized in the lack of knowledge of corporate management about the role of public relations in public communication, drawing a positive image of the company, and achieving successful marketing objectives. The research aims to raise the attention of corporate management on how it is possible to activate mass communication to achieve a successful marketing process, and the researchers sought to include the current research within a theoretical framework as well as descriptive analysis. The researchers reached a set of recommendations, the most prominent of which is the expansion and deepening of reliance on public relations by the company's management, which effectively contributes to the company obtaining its marketing objectives, as well as that the effect of public relations in the marketing management is a direct effect because the marketing management is a pattern influenced by the management of the public relations system.</p> Hardawan M. Kakashekh, Hoshyar M. Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 13 Sep 2021 06:24:27 +0000 University students’ Reliability on the News of Kurdish Online Newspapers <p>This research aims to explore the range of reliability of university undergraduates on the news published on online newspapers and its impact achieved by this accreditation. To accomplish this, the research adopts the analytical survey methodologies through questionnaires forms as well as using statistical methods experimenting their interrelationships.&nbsp;The study population consists of university youth (University of Sulaimani - college of Languages). The sample of the survey depends on random sampling, (10%) of the study population has been selected to be the sample of the research that is to say (131) out of the total number of (1310) students. Which allows the division of the community according to the ratios.The distribution of the sample based on the proportion of the students in varies departments of the college.&nbsp;The study concludes with most important results such as: The first reason that the students of (university of Sulaimani – college of languages) do not rely on Kurdish online newspapers is the lack of objectivity in their contents, therefore these students still mainly rely on newspapers and other medium as source of news. The study validates the alternatives; that there is a correlation between statistical significance between the demographic variables of university undergraduates and their reliability on the news published in the Kurdish online newspapers. The study also proves that there is a significant interrelationship between the students‌ reliability on the news to expand their knowledge about current issues.&nbsp;The study concludes with several recommendations and suggestions, such as: Kurdish e-newspapers should broad their topic contents in various issues and event and avoid praising authorities and government officials. Noting the reasons of unreliability of the respondents on the news that published in Kurdish online newspapers, and try to publish Trustworthy news. Under interest in public researches and use the outcome of this study.</p> Omar A. Ramazan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Using the Digital Records Chain "Block Chain" Technology on the Environment of Accounting Transactions <p>The study aimed to identify the impact of the use of digital records chain "block chain" technology on the environment of accounting transactions. The study relied on the descriptive analytical approach, and the questionnaire was used as a tool for the study. In the banks listed on the Palestine Exchange, through which permanent financial transaction records will be processed and maintained in a distributed decentralized general ledger capable of storing and confirming the transactions that pass through it. The study recommended working on the use of block chain technology, which depends on replacing the method Double-entry accounting In the accounting treatment of financial transactions, financial transactions are made and digital records are made and financial data is stored in cryptographically protected blocks whose integrity is constantly checked.</p> Heba H.M. Abu Arab, Abed El Rahman M. Rashwan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Practices of Electronic Human Resource Management and its Impact on the Organizational ‎Performance ‎ <p>This study aims to uncover electronic human resource management practices and their impact on the organizational performance in the Homs Educational Directorate, Syria. Also, determining levels of organizational performance in the directorate and creating interactive indicators with the application of electronic human resource management practices. The two researchers adopted a descriptive and analytical approach, which means studying facts about phenomena and events through collecting data and information, analyzing them and interpreting them. A random sample was approved based on various levels, technical and administrative specializations for workers on a permanent basis, questionnaire form was distributed to (102) employees. The SPSS statistical program was also used to examine the research hypotheses. The results of the research showed that the Homs ‎ Educational Directorate adopts some electronic human resource management practices and this is evident through the results of the scientific analysis, which strengthens the directorate’s orientation towards electronic work in most of its functions. Electronic training and development is one of the most important dimensions of the directorate, as it uses electronic applications to train and educate employees. Finally, the Homs ‎ Educational Directorate had some concerned with organizational performance at an acceptable level, and that the competency dimension is one of the most interesting dimensions, as it has an electronic infrastructure that helps it to adopt this dimension. This research can be of help for working administrators interested in continuous improvement and development of administrative work by providing a future visions for delving into the information society and making use of modern technologies.</p> Aram H. Massoudi, Sahar J. Fatah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 10 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Text of the Electronic News <p>Intertextuality has a pivotal role in shaping and directing texts. No text can be studied or deconstructed without paying attention to its relationships with contemporary or previous texts.&nbsp;This article focused on the text of the electronic news, the study of quotations in the news of the NRT website addresses the phenomenon of quotations in political news according to the descriptive approach, depending on the content and statistical analyzes, for the study sample consisting of political - electronic news published on the NRT website, for the month of June of the year 2021.&nbsp;The results show that direct quotations, especially the predominance of oriented-ruling texts, play a pivotal role in shaping the editorial structure of the news, and have their stylistic hegemony. Also, the quotations of both kinds negatively affected the editorial structure of the news, its media function and the principles of electronic editing, while recording some stylistic advantages through indirect quotations, but without informing them of the principles of media editing.In light of the results, the study presented several scientific recommendations, namely; the need to pay attention by the media to how to use intertextuality, in order to serve to enhance and enrich information</p> Hawzhin O. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000