https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/issue/feed Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal 2022-09-25T16:03:27+00:00 Prof. Amjad Sabir Al-Dalawi ojs.admin@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Open Journal Systems <p>Cihan University-Erbil Scientific journal (CUESJ) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUESJ a periodical journal publishes original researches in all areas of Science, Engineering and Technology. CUESJ is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUESJ provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neither article processing charge (APC) nor article submission charge (ASC). CUESJ applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts IEEE citation/referencing style. CUESJ Section Policy includes three types of publications; Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. CUESJ has a print-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2519-6979">2519-6979</a>. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-6377">2707-6377</a> and a member of the Crossref with a doi: <a href="http://doi.org/10.24086/issn.2519-6979">10.24086/issn.2519-6979</a>.</p> https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/661 Using Factor Analysis to Determine the Most Important Factors Affecting Student Absenteeism at Cihan University- Erbil 2022-07-12T19:54:15+00:00 Hawkar Q. Birdawod hawkar.birdawod@cihanuniversity.edu.iq <p>The review of the relevant literature reveals that the issue of absenteeism among students was not new. The researcher intended to explore the factors affecting absenteeism and to find a solution to solve this issue. For this purpose, a mixed methods research was designed. To analyze this problem, both quantitative and qualitative research methods were adopted in this study. In quantitative approach a close ended questionnaire was developed to collect data. The sample comprised of 470 students out of total population of (4892). A descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used to analyze the data. ‎Transcriptions were analyzed through Thematic Description Approach under the qualitative ‎methods using IBM SPSS version 25.0. The results revealed significant factors of the phenomenon. It was delimited to the Cihan University-Erbil only, but the findings can be generalized all over Kurdistan Region, because of the many similarities in our educational system (examination, large scale assessment and resources).</p> 2022-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/685 Proteinase Inhibitors of Pigeonpea cv. BSMR 736: Characterization and Bioefficacy Against Helicoverpa Armigera 2022-09-19T19:04:53+00:00 Faiyaz K. Shaikh faizbiochem@gmail.com Sarwan W. Bradosty sarwan.hamad@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Prafull P. Gadge prafulgadg@gmail.com Bhimrao V. Jaiwal jaiwalbv@gmail.com Manohar V. Padul manohar@iscm.ac.in Ajit B. Patil abs@gmail.com <p>Pigeonpea is an agriculturally important leguminous crop with high vulnerability to insect pest attack specifically, Helicoverpa armigera. The proteinase inhibitors (PIs) mediated host plant resistance against insect pests is a promising sustainable agricultural research practice. The current study was carried out to perceive biochemical characterization of proteinase inhibitors named PPTI in the pigeonpea (cv. BSMR 736). The purification of PPTI from crude protein seed extract was achieved by acetone precipitation, N-LP-IEF, and trypsin affinity chromatography. It was found to inhibit bovine trypsin and HaGPs in vitro. The optimal conditions for inhibition were pH 8 and temperature 40ºC. The PPTI showed four isoinhibitors bands on native, non-reducing and reducing SDS-PAGE in the range of 26.7–19.3 KDa. Upon resolution on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), PPTI produced nine pI variant spots having isoelectric point (pI) 6.6, 6.6, 6.3, 6.1, 5.9, 5.8, 5.7, 5.6 and 5.6. An artificial diet containing PPTI reduced the H. armigera larval weight about 69%, with 25% mortality. For eco-friendly sustainable agricultural practices, natural compounds like PPTI could be expressed in transgenic crops to prevent the invasion of H. armigera in pigeonpea.</p> 2022-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/675 Design of RF Frontend Unit to Avoid Intermodulation Using Arduino Uno 2022-08-11T16:24:34+00:00 Adil H. Mohammed adil.mohammed@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Yazen S. Almashhadani yazen.mahmood@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Ahmad N. Abdulfattah ahmad.nashwan@cihanuniversity.edu.iq <p>Designing a Radio Frequency (RF) front end is vastly realized for determining the level of integration that is required in the signal chain inside the receivers to be idealistic. The receivers is susceptible to harmful intermodulation due to nonlinear RF front ends. In this paper, intermodulation distortion is avoided by a selective prototype hardware design of RF fort end which is connected with the Arduino Uno for controlling the power levels. The measurements are tested out as a result of injecting a signals within x-band frequencies and chosen different power levels are assumed. These measurements is revealed an accepted results for the intermodulation avoidance.</p> 2022-08-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/711 Empower E-wallets Payment System by using Secured Hybrid Approach of Online and Offline Services 2022-08-11T18:11:02+00:00 Mohammed H. Shukur m.kurd@hotmail.com Reem J. Ismail reem.jafar@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Laith R. Flaih laith.flaih@cihanuniversity.edu.iq <p>Payment mechanisms are migrated to mobile devices as e-commerce grows, creating e-wallets. The current e-wallet payment solutions are based on online-connected smartphones. The transaction is completed using a mobile application, which requires a GPRS and Wi-Fi connection. People around the world are becoming more interested in e-wallets. Nevertheless, in Iraq, it grows slower than in other parts of the world after survey is done to ascertain the primary elements influencing Iraqis’ adoption of electronic wallets. This paper proposes a design of e-wallet Mobile app offering online to offline (O2O) payments that aim to replace traditional e-wallet, credit cards, debit cards, and cash using offline connectivity, near-field communication (NFC), and SMS-based payment mechanisms that are independent of internet connection.</p> 2022-08-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/575 A Proposed Model for Build a Secure Restful API to Connect between Server Side and Mobile Application Using Laravel Framework with Flutter Toolkits 2022-08-14T06:38:22+00:00 Osama M.A. AL-atraqchi osama.ahmed@cihanuniversity.edu.iq <p>Any business these days need a mobile application connected with central database, like E-commerce, E-Learning, Restaurant applications …etc., and in order to create a professional application -connected with backend, Restful API is needed, therefore, choose the best languages, tools and frameworks to build a mobile application in the client side, and Database, API and Dashboard in the backend is crucial. this paper proposed a model to create a Cross-platform mobile application using Flutter Framework with some packages like http to connect with API, (flutter_secure_storage) to store a token and (GetX) for state management and MVC Architectural style, beside using Laravel framework with MySQL database to build an Restful API and the dashboard in the backend, and for make a system for Rules and permissions, Spatie package has been used&nbsp; with Laravel, as well as use Sanctum for Authentication and Authorization system to protect the APIs with JWT, the result is build a full stack application (frontend and Backend)&nbsp; called (My Services), which is a kind of Ecommerce application for services only in less than one month.</p> 2022-08-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/682 The Essential Pheromonal Elements of the Mouse Preputial Gland in Castrated Treated Mice 2022-08-16T08:14:18+00:00 Merza H. Homady merza.homady@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Ali A. Majeed alia.sayhood@uokufa.edu.iq Maysoon T. Al-Haideri‎ maysoon.alhaideri@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Mustafa T. Younis‎ mustafa.thanoon@cihanuniversity.edu.iq <p>The present study investigated the 1effects of both castration and manipulation of castrated1 subjects with 0.1 ml of 50µg/kg/day of testosterone at 3 weeks of age for 6 weeks on the pheromonal and histological structure of male mice preputial gland. &nbsp;&nbsp;The preputial gland results from the control intact group showed that six essential pheromonal compounds are present, whereas the glandular structure revealed well-developed acini with basement membrane and connective tissue around most of them. These findings also showed that castration has deleterious effects on the essential pheromonal compounds which are reduced to two compounds only (the α.-Farnesene and 1- Tetradecanol) as well as the histological sections from such subject appeared many atrophied vacuolated acini. On the other hand, treatment of castrated animals with such dose of testosterone did not show any marked effects on the essential pheromonal compounds but it was able to restore the activities of acinar development as showed by many hypertrophied alveoli.</p> 2022-08-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/730 Route Discovery Development for Multiple Destination Using Artificial Ant Colony 2022-08-16T08:19:12+00:00 Reem J. Ismail reem.jafar@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Mohammed H. Shukur mohammed.shukur@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Samar J. Ismael 50240@uotechnology.edu.iq <p>Smart cities need a smart applications for the citizen, not just digital devices. Smart applications will provide a decision-making to users by using artificial intelligence. Many real-world services for online shopping and delivery systems were used and attracted customers, especially after the Covid-19 pandemics when people prefer to keep social distance and minimize social places visiting. These services need to discover the shortest path for the delivery driver to visit multiple destinations and serve the customers. The aim of this research is to develop the route discovery for multiple-destination by using ACO Algorithm for Multiple destination route planning. ACO Algorithm for Multiple destination route planning develops the Google MAP application to optimize the route when it is used for multiple destinations and when the route is updated with a new destination. The results show improvement in the multiple destination route discovery when the shortest path and the sequence order of cities are found. In conclusion, the ACO Algorithm for Multiple destination route planning simulation results could be used with the Google Map application and provide an artificial decision for the citizen of Erbil city.&nbsp; Finally, we discuss our vision for future development.</p> 2022-08-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/667 Detecting Denial of Service Attacks in Internet of Things Using Software-Defined Networking and Ensemble Learning 2022-08-16T15:19:20+00:00 Adil H. Mohammed adil.mohammed@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Shima Rashidi adil.mohammed@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Yusra A. Salih adil.mohammed@cihanuniversity.edu.iq <p class="Abstract"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-weight: normal;">The Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel approach to automate connections between smart devices without involving humans. The utilization of this structure is growing, and its application range is continually expanding. We confront additional issues as the usage of these networks grows, such as the presence of attackers and combating their attacks. These networks' performance may be improved, and their development can be accelerated, with new solutions to these difficulties. A new method for improving IoT security is proposed in this research, which is based on software-based network and collaborative learning. The suggested solution divides the network domain into numerous subdomains, each with its own controller for exchanging security rules with other subdomains. All of a subnet's node traffic is routed through the subnet's control node in this topology. As a result, each controller node employs an integrated learning model to continually evaluate network traffic data and detect assaults. This learning model incorporates an artificial neural network, a decision tree, and a New Biz model that uses statistical information gathered from each data stream to identify the likely existence of assaults. NSL-KDD database data was utilised to assess the proposed method's performance, and its accuracy in identifying denial of service attacks was compared to earlier approaches.</span></p> 2022-08-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/706 Serum Fibroblast Growth Factors 23, Chemerin, and Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Psoriasis 2022-08-16T15:20:51+00:00 Shatha N. Tawfeeq shatha.nasih@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Moayad M. Al Anzy moayad_al_anzi@tu.ed.iq Entedhar R. Sarhat entedharr@tu.edu.iq <p>The aim of the study was to compare the levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and chemerin, as well as Vitamin D in psoriasis sufferers and healthy controls. From 2021 to 2022, ninety subjects were studied. The study comprised 45 individuals with psoriasis and 45 healthy controls. Serum fasting FGF23 and chemerin levels of the study group were examined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results demonstrate that the mean serum FGF23 and chemerin quantities in psoriasis patients were greater than in controls, with a statistically significant. Patients with psoriasis, on the other hand, had considerably lower blood Vitamin D levels than healthy controls. These findings demonstrate that psoriatic patients have lower Vitamin D levels than healthy controls, and they add to the growing body of data linking FGF23, chemerin Vitamin D levels, and the course of psoriasis.</p> 2022-08-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/691 A Microbiological Survey of Ear Infections in Inhabitants of Erbil City 2022-08-22T15:33:00+00:00 Treska D. kamil treska.kamil@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Ameena S. M. Juma ameena.sabah@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Muhsin H. Ubeid muhsin.Hmeadi@cihanuniversity.edu.iq <p>this study was carried out to indicate the number of infected individuals with ear infection from different genders and ages determine the antibiotic sociability for the ear swab bacterial isolates. A total of 82 ear swabs were obtained in Erbil City from various hospitals and labs. Males made up 48 (59%) of the 81 samples, while females made up 33 (41%). 0-10 years had the most bacteria isolated from ear swabs, followed by 11-20 years and then 21-40 years. Pseudomonas spp. were the most prevalent bacteria found in all of the swabs (43 percent). Pathogenic bacteria were found in 70% of the samples, while no growth was seen in 30% of the swabs. Many bacterial isolates were found to be sensitive to the antibiotic Amikacin, which was determined to have the best effect on 35 of them. Clotrimazole was shown to be the least effective antibiotic on numerous bacterial strains, with 19 being resistant.</p> 2022-08-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/737 Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Zingiber Officinale Rhizomes Aqueous Extract and its Gastroprotective Activity Against Ethanol-Produced Stomach Ulcer in Rodents 2022-08-22T16:55:29+00:00 Suhayla H. Shareef suhayla.shareef@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Ismail N.M. Hadi in202118008@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Mustafa A. Badeea ‎ ma202118048@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Mahmood A. Abdulla mahmood.ameen@cihanuniversity.edu.iq <p>Synthesis of gold nanoparticles exhibition wide range of bioactivities and was conventionally used for the remedy of numerous disorders. Our study aims to measure the gastroprotective effect of synthesized gold nanoparticles on absolute ethanol-induced stomach ulceration in rats. The rats were noticeably administered with two doses of gold nanoparticles (175 ppm and 350 ppm) with absolute alcohol and&nbsp;showed a significant improvement in the adverse effect of ethanol-produced stomach damage as confirmed by decreasing ulcer index&nbsp;and raising % of ulcer prevention. Increased mucus pH of stomach content reduced ulcerated portion, condensed or nonappearance of&nbsp;edema, and white blood cells permeation subcutaneous layer. In gastric tissue homogenate, synthesized gold nanoparticles presented&nbsp;a substantial increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) actions, and a substantial lessening of malondialdehyde (MDA)&nbsp;amount. Besides, gold nanoparticle increases the intensity of periodic acid Schiff stained (PAS) of the gastric epithelium of the stomach.&nbsp;Gold nanoparticles confirmed gastro-protective effects which might be qualified to its antioxidant, increase mucus secretion, increase&nbsp;endogenous enzymes (SOD and CAT), and reduce MDA quantity.</p> 2022-08-22T16:55:26+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/679 FANET Drone’s Data Applications, Mobility Models and Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11n Standards for Real and Non-Real Time Traffic 2022-08-23T11:10:58+00:00 Ghassan A. QasMarrogy ghassan.qasmarrogy@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Areen J. Fadhil areenjamal1993@gmail.com <p>Data traffic is the most important data transmission between users inside every network, these data traffic can be videos, files, voice, pictures, and many more, that divided into two types, real-time and non-real-time traffic. Most real-time traffic data has a low tolerance for the delay during transmission as they need to be fast received between communication devices. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis will be made to evaluate the two types of data transmitted through FANET drones, with different mobility models and two types of IEEE 802.11 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz by using OLSR routing protocol. Metrics such as delay and throughput will be measured. This paper gives an important overview of how real and non-real-time traffic will be handled during data transmission in FANET networks.</p> 2022-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/655 Study of Shear Transfer in Modified Push-Off Members Using Finite Elements Method 2022-08-31T06:10:12+00:00 Sabih H. Muhodir sabihhm35@gmail.com <p>This paper aims to investigate numerical study onto the behavior of modified push-off specimens under the action of direct shear stress. Based on the tow-dimensional finite element model developed in this research, the contribution of the aggregate interlock to resist the shear stress along the shear plane, the effect of existing of the compressive stress acting across the shear plane, the effect of the parallel reinforcement in resisting shear stress, the effect of the shear reinforcement parameter, the strains in the concrete and steel and the actual distribution of the shear stress along the shear plane were studied. To verify the accuracy and applicability of the suggested finite element model, a comparison between the results obtained in this study and those obtained experimentally by other authors was carried out. Comparison showed that the finite element results were in good agreement with the experimental results. It has been found that, for modified push-off specimens of groups without shear reinforcement across the shear plane the diagonal tension crack within the shear plane occurred at the load level which is closely to the ultimate shear strength respectively, while for specimens with both shear and parallel reinforcement , the first crack formed at about (33.7% - 53.0%) of the ultimate strength , also the investigation showed that the presenting of the shear reinforcement normal to the shear plane are significantly increased the shear transfer stress for all levels of loading.</p> 2022-08-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/664 The Green Network Panoramic Vision 2022-09-08T06:01:33+00:00 Seema K. Alfaris seema.khalid@tiu.edu.iq <p>Most cities worldwide suffer from the unequal distribution of urban areas and country areas around them and the growth of dangerous environmental issues. One of the primary causes of the imbalance is the continued expansion of building blocks and urban development against the open spaces and green areas either in or out of cities. Furthermore, the natural landscape, in general, has a significant impact on protecting the climate from rising temperatures and pollutants. So the aim of this research is to identify a panoramic vision of a green network and get to ‎use sustainable land in a strong and socially solid society. ‎ As a result, the research problem reads: there is dispersion and disintegration in urban open space planning and its development. To solve the research problem, a hypothesis is proposed stating that “the absence of a panoramic vision of green networks and disconnection with the surrounding region is one of the most important causes of dispersion in those spaces”. Erbil city is one of the Iraqi cities in the northern part, was chosen as a case study to examine the green network components or elements. The results showed that Erbil has many aspects of the green network. This study offers some suggestions to fulfill the missing parts of it.</p> 2022-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/705 A Comparison of Chemical Compounds between Anti-Diabetic Drug and Some Medicinal Plants 2022-09-16T18:20:02+00:00 Ali M. Hussein ali.m.hussein@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Rayan S. Salahalddin rs203120070@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Zhala B. Taha Zhala.taha@su.edu.krd Hawri A. Majeed ha33121053@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Ali J. Muhialdin alij.muhialdin@garmian.edu.krd Rahman K. Faraj Rahman.Karim@garmian.edu.krd <p>Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a kind of diabetes marked by high blood sugar, insulin, and insulin insufficiency. Adult-onset diabetes is another name for it. Increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss are common indications and symptoms. Metformin side&nbsp;effects include metallic taste, weakness, diarrhea, stomach upset, lactic acidosis, and vomiting. Two other side effects are asthenia and&nbsp;a Vitamin B12 deficiency. Many recent studies and most health experts recommend basil seed as a better Metformin substitute. The research investigates why patients who consume basil seeds have a similar response to those who take Metformin. The methodology of the study consisted of two main steps, first step is to analyze basil and use HPLC to determine its chemical components. The second step is to compare the broken-down components to Metformin-composed materials, which is done by diluting with methanol/water (50:50 v/v) and removing the fat layer using 20 mL hexane. The findings showed that basil seed and Metformin had the most similar component structure, thus the foundlings concluded that patients had the same responses without the Metformin side effects, implying that basil&nbsp;seed stabilizes blood sugar levels.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/712 Different Concentrations of Honey's Antimicrobial Activity Against ‎Staphylococcus Aureus by HPLC Determination 2022-09-25T16:03:27+00:00 Raid D. Thanoon raid.duraid@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Abdalmuhaymen S. Alshaeen bdalmhymnshahyn@gmail.com Hasnaa ‎ R. Abdullah queenhasnaa1999@gmail.com Laith A. Abdulhussain Laithasaad59@yahoo.com Wurood ‎ J. Mohammed wroodjassim999@gmail.com Abdullah‎ B. Hassan aboyamamoto12@gmail.com <p>Honey has been used in ancient times as a treatment. It is used for healing wounds and also can be used as antiseptic to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of honey as a bactericidal and bacteriostatic and to measure the most active compounds of honey with highly bacterial inhibition zone using HPLC technique. In this experiment and the honey was used to check whether the honey can be used as an antimicrobial agent or not. First by well diffusion method is done by adding different concentrations of honey (25, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200, microliter). Th results showed a little inhibition zone for the three types of honey but in different size for each type. The industrial honey showed the largest effect. Different concentrations were used (10 %, 30 % 50%). The antibiotic sensitivity was applied, the result showed only two resistant antibiotics (Azithromycin and Erythromycin). The concentration of Catalase, Amylase, Invertase, Glucose oxidase in honey tested by HPLC and showed the concentration of each substance cons of catalase = (32877 ÷ 170253 ) x 20 = 3.862 u/ml; cons of amylase = (136985 ÷ 180849) x 20 = 15.149 u/ml; cons of Invertase = (58466&nbsp; ÷ 193624) x 20 = 6.039 u/ml; cons of glucose peroxide = (105204 ÷ 163245) x 20 =12.889 u/ml. Moreover, the presence of gluconic acid ‘Organic acid’ gives the honey its acidic characteristic which is about 3.2 pH.</p> 2022-09-25T16:03:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/771 A Review on the Structure, Application and Performance of the Passive Microstrip Devices 2022-09-19T19:26:56+00:00 Abbas Rezaei unrezaei@yahoo.com Salah I. Yahya salah.ismaeel@koyauniversity.org <p>Microstrip technology is widely applied for design and implementation of several communication devices such as filters, diplexers, triplexers, multiplexers, couplers, etc. They are utilized to isolate desired signals and remove disturbing signals. The layout of filters, diplexers and triplexers have two, three and four ports, respectively. Passive filters have at least one pass channel, whereas diplexers have at least two channels to transmit the desired signal, and multiplexers have more passbands with more channels. In order to implement the passive components, first a cell called resonator must be designed. Creativity is very important in resonator design. It must be small and novel to get a better device than previous works. Therefore, the layout of previous reported resonator, used in passive microstrip devices, are studied in this work. There is a fierce competition among designers to miniaturize and increase the device performance. Hence we will investigate them, from the point of view size and performance, in this work. Some diplexers are multi-channel, which are more difficult to design than two-channel diplexers. Therefore, the multi-channel diplexers are less reported than the two-channel diplexers. The design of multiplexers is also very difficult because several channels must be controlled. Hence, they are less designed than filters and diplexers. The diplexers can be bandpass-bandpass or lowpass-bandpass, where the latest is less designed. This is because designing a lowpass-bandpass diplexer needs lowpass and bandpass resonators, whereas the design of a bandpass-bandpass diplexer needs only a bandpass resonator.</p> 2022-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##