Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal 2021-07-25T07:59:17+00:00 Prof. Amjad Sabir Al-Dalawi Open Journal Systems <p>Cihan University-Erbil Scientific journal (CUESJ) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUESJ a periodical journal publishes original researches in all areas of Science, Engineering and Technology. CUESJ is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUESJ provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neither article processing charge (APC) nor article submission charge (ASC). CUESJ applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts IEEE citation/referencing style. CUESJ Section Policy includes three types of publications; Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. CUESJ has a print-ISSN: <a href="">2519-6979</a>. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="">2707-6377</a> and a member of the Crossref with a doi: <a href="">10.24086/issn.2519-6979</a>.</p> On the Development of a Multi-Layered Agent-Based Heurisitc System for Vehicle Routing Problem under Random Vehicle Breakdown 2021-06-20T13:45:31+00:00 Anees M. Abu- Monshar Ammar F. Al-Bazi Qusay H. Alsalami <p>With the recent technological advancement, the Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem (DVRP) is becoming more applicable but almost all of the research in this field limited the source of dynamism from the order side rather from the vehicle, in addition to the adoption of inflexible tools that are mainly designed for the static problem. Considering multiple random vehicle breakdowns complicates the problem of how to adapt and distribute the workload to other functioning vehicles. In this ongoing PhD research, a proposed multi-layered Agent-Based Model (ABM) along with a modelling framework on how to deal with such disruptive events in a reactive continuous manner. The model is partially constructed and experimented, with a developed clustering rule, on two randomly generated scenario for the purpose of validation. The rule achieved good order allocation to vehicles and reacted to different problem sizes by rejecting orders that are over the model capacity. This shows a promising path in fully adopting the ABM model in this dynamic problem.</p> 2021-05-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Improving Coronavirus Disease Tracking in Malaysian Health System 2021-06-20T13:45:30+00:00 Mohammed H. Shukur <p>This paper proposes Covid-19 Tracing System (CTS) acts as a portal for the health center to update and track their patients' contacts and collect data for further analysis. All of the content is handpicked, filtered, and selected to the best of our ability by assigned individuals (mostly medical staff) to ensure that sources are credible and free of hoaxes for the public's benefit. This application likewise means to assemble information for the top to the bottom investigation (for example, time arrangement to screen the development, in-house patients) and synchronization with a contact following application, for instance, MySejahtera that was created and set up by the Malaysian government and utilized from one side of the country to the other. For simplicity of clients' understanding using Graphic visualizations and dashboards are incorporated.</p> 2021-05-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Immunohistochemical and Molecular Studies of p53 and KRAS Protein and Their Relations to Colorectal Carcinoma 2021-07-03T11:57:48+00:00 Merza H. Homady Tanya S. Salih Mariamm M. Al-Jubori Mustafa D. Younus <p>The study inc1uded 50 tissue blocks embedded in paraffin wax (16 females and 34 males), obtained from a patients group with (CRC) colorectal cancer , as well as 35 Tissue blocks that were embedded in paraffin wax from norma1 co1on (ulcerative co1itis) as controls. A relatively few oncogenes and most prominently tumor-suppressing genes, Kirastien rat sarcoma virus (KRAS), and P53 genes have been mutated into a significant part of CRCs, and a broad collection of mutated genes has been defined in CRC subsets.&nbsp;Current findings showed very significant differences between patients and control subjects in the p53 positive rate (P&lt;0.001). TP53 Pro/Pro genotype positivity was higher in the contro1 group I than in the patient group I and this was a significant difference (Pi&lt;0.001) with an odd ratio of less than one. The genotype Pro/Pro was considered to be protective against colorectal carcinoma preventively fractured 0.767. The positive rate of p53 Arg/Arg genotype in patients was more frequent and statistically significant (P &lt;0.01), because the odd ratio was more than one. The genotype Arg/Arg would be considered a colorectal carcinoma risk factor.&nbsp;We conclude that p53 over expression is used as an indicator of p53 mutation (as identified by immuno-historic chemistry) and KRAS protein expression was negatively impaired for all the patients in the current study.</p> 2021-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sand Clock and The Concept of Time in Einstein’s Theory of Relativity 2021-07-04T08:27:23+00:00 Waria O. Amin <p>The sand clock is a device used to measure time, consisting of two conical glass bulbs, which are connected vertically by a small opening neck. The top contains grains of fine dry sand<strong>. </strong>The upper part symbolizes the future,&nbsp;&nbsp; sand passes through the neck (which indicates present) to the lower part which turned past.&nbsp;In 1907, German scientist Hermann Minkowski (1864-1909) interpreted the concept of the four-dimensional space-time of Einstein's theory in a two-dimensional cone diagram, in which the upper cone symbolizes the future, the neck the present and the lower part the past.&nbsp;&nbsp;The researcher has noticed a great likeness, to the point of congruence between the shape and function of both, the sand clock and the diagram. This resemblance aroused speculations that Hermann Minkowski had been inspired by the sand hour in drawing his diagram. It cannot be attributed to a merely chance.</p> 2021-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern, Molecular Characterization of Virulence Genes among Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Patients 2021-07-25T07:56:36+00:00 Mustafa D. Younus Omar F. Bahjat Sirwan A. Rashid <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>In this research a total of 150 samples were obtained from burn and wound patients admitted to the West Erbil Emergence Hospital during period from September 2020 to January 2021. Through cultural, morphological features, biochemical testing and Vitek’s 2 compact systems, 40 isolates of <em>P. aeruginosa </em>have been identified<em>. P. aeruginosa </em>produced various pigments, including blue / green, and yellow / green. The iso1ates of <em>P. aeruginosa </em>were subjected to 14 different antibiotics. Impenim was the most effective antimicrobial agents against all <em>P. aerugionsa </em>isolates, and most of isolates showed high resistance degree to Ampicillin 100%, Chloramphenicol 100%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 100%, Cefotaxime 100% and Penicillin 100% while for Aztreonam 32.5%, Meropenem 42.5%, Tobramycin 45%, Gentamycin 45%, Amikacin 45%, Ciprofloxacillin 62.5%, ceftazidime 67.5, % Tetracycline 80%. All <em>Psudomonas aeruginosa </em>isolates were screened using Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to check for the presence of (Pvda, LasB, Protease, exoA, exoT, exoU and plch) on its genomic DNA. The findings have shown that (Pvda was 55%, LasB 75%, Protease 65%, exoA 60%, exoT 75%, exoU 60% and, plch 55%) of isolates harbored these genes as a virulence genes.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring Investigation of the Impact of Studying Statistics at Enhancing Mathematical Skills during Years of Faculty 2021-07-25T07:59:17+00:00 Marwan T. Hasan <p>Subject of statistics has always known as field related to mathematics and because statistics is commonly taught in schools as part of the mathematics curriculum, it is regarded as a mathematical. In Salahaddin University, entering to department of statistics is limited to students who graduated from science department at high school. Thus, we anticipating students with good knowledge in mathematical level. Students from all stages of the department were encouraged to participate in the exam and their scores were recorded. The objective of this study are to explore whether there is substantial difference between male and female as well as to discover whether the more higher stages enhance their mathematical level of knowledge. Normality test was done on the dataset and if failed to meet it, non-parametric test such as Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test at significant level 0.05.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Overview on SDN and NFV Security Orchestration in Cloud Network Environment 2021-07-03T11:23:51+00:00 Israa T. Aziz Ihsan H. Abdulqadder <p>Cloud networks are being used in most industries and applications in the current era. Software-defined networking has come up as an alternative tool and mechanism to follow and implement in a cloud networking environment in place of the traditional networking approaches. This paper includes the security aspects of computer networking concerning the cloud networking environment and software-defined networks. The security risks and vulnerabilities have been listed and described in this work, and the measures that may be adapted to detect, prevent, and control the same. The use of figures, diagrams, and codes has been done as applicable.</p> 2021-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##