https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/issue/feed Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal 2022-06-08T08:38:29+00:00 Prof. Amjad Sabir Al-Dalawi ojs.admin@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Open Journal Systems <p>Cihan University-Erbil Scientific journal (CUESJ) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUESJ a periodical journal publishes original researches in all areas of Science, Engineering and Technology. CUESJ is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUESJ provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neither article processing charge (APC) nor article submission charge (ASC). CUESJ applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts IEEE citation/referencing style. CUESJ Section Policy includes three types of publications; Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. CUESJ has a print-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2519-6979">2519-6979</a>. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-6377">2707-6377</a> and a member of the Crossref with a doi: <a href="http://doi.org/10.24086/issn.2519-6979">10.24086/issn.2519-6979</a>.</p> https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/534 A Statistical Study of the Influence of COVID-19 on the Agricultural Supply Chain (Vegetative) Production in Halabja Governorate 2022-01-29T10:03:04+00:00 Hazhar T. A. Blbas hazharstat@gmail.com Shahen M. Faraj‎ Hazhar.abubaker@su.edu.krd Aymen ‎ I. Ahmed aymanismail.ahmed@yahoo.com <p>It is clear that the COVID-19 virus has affected human life and activities all over the world. The agricultural sector is not excluded from the affection of course. The importance of this issue encouraged us to carry out this statistical study aiming to show the impact of COVID-19 on the agricultural supply chain (Vegetative) production in Halabja. Three forms of the self-administered questionnaire&nbsp;(SAQ) were used to collect data from three targets; farmers, wholesalers, and retailers using the nonprobability sampling method. Descriptive analysis was used to show frequencies, percentages, and mean scores, while Independent Sample T-Test was used to find the relationship between variables using SPSS software V.26. Results show that there is no statistically significant relationship between characteristics of production and residence. Lockdown had a major impact on the plant production and its supplying chain in the following sequence: fewer products were delivered to the wholesaling markets by farmers, retailers bought less so consumers got fewer products.</p> 2022-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/545 Apply Binary Logistic Regression Model to Recognize the Risk Factors of Diabetes through Measuring Glycated Hemoglobin Levels 2022-02-10T12:15:46+00:00 Nozad H Mahmood Nozad.mahmood@sulicihan.edu.krd Rebaz O. Yahya rebaz.othman@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Saya J. Aziz Saya.jamal@sulicihan.edu.krd <p>This study aimed to identify diabetes risk factors in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq and explain why diabetes is rapidly spreading there, which examined some sociodemographic characteristics factors that might affect type 2 diabetes such as age, gender, alcohol consumption, and smoking, diabetes family history, and body weight. The data was collected from the hospital of diabetes named the center of diabetes in Sulaymaniyah city of Iraq, in which 218 diabetic cases were used for that purpose. According to the findings, some factors influence type 2 diabetes, such as Gender, Smoking, and Body Weight. For Gender, Females are more likely to have diabetes than males. Also, someone that smokes is more likely to have diabetes than those who do not smoke. Furthermore, with increasing each kilogram of body weight, the diabetes degree increases as well. On the other hand, regarding the results, some factors such as Age, Consumption of Alcoholic, and Diabetes Family History do not affect type 2 diabetes. Depending on the findings, it is recommended that people engage in regular physical activity and consume nutritious foods to minimize weight gain, which is one of the primary causes of diabetes as well as they should quit smoking.</p> 2022-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/547 US Dollar/IQ Dinar Currency Exchange Rates Time Series Forecasting Using ARIMA Model 2022-02-10T12:15:45+00:00 Parzhin A. Mohammed Parzhin.mohammrd@su.edu.krd Sami A. Obed sami.obed@su.edu.krd Israa M. Ali israa.ali@su.edu.krd Dler H. Kadir dler.kadir@su.edu.krd <p>The use of currency exchange estimation as a tool for economic planning is being researched as a technique for gaining economic stability. The main purpose of this study is to use the ARIMA model to forecast monthly US dollar and IQ dinar exchange rates. The information was gathered from January 2010 to December 2020. We got the information from the website (sa.investing.com). The minimum value of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error are used to select the optimal model (MAE). ARIMA was found to be the best model for the US Dollar/IQ Dinar series (2, 1,0). This is the forecasted meaning for the future of this exchange rate time series, which indicates a perpetual increase continuously in the next two years. Statgraphics version 15 was the statistical software package utilized to complete this project.</p> 2022-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/561 The Full Factorial Design Approach to Determine the Attitude of University Lecturers towards e-Learning and Online Teaching due to the COVID-19 Pandemic 2022-02-10T12:15:44+00:00 Nozad H Mahmood nozad.mahmood@sulicihan.edu.krd Dler H. Kadir dler.kadir@su.edu.krd Hawkar Q. Birdawod hawkar.birdawod@cihanuniversity.edu.iq <p>The purpose of this study was to determine faculty members' attitudes toward online learning in Kurdistan region universities. The study examined the biographic and personal characteristics of the lecturer towards e-learning. The data was collected among faculty members at Cihan University-Sulaimaniya, and to analyze the data, a full factorial design with five main factors at two levels and no central points was applied for this specific purpose. The study's findings indicated that there was no significant relationship between gender and lecturer attitude towards e-learning. In comparison to teachers with an MSc degree, those with a PhD have a more negative attitude toward e-learning. Furthermore, full-time faculty members have a greater positive effect on teachers' attitudes than part-time lecturers. Likewise, the results indicate that lecturers who earned their most recent education degrees outside of Iraq have a more favorable attitude. Similarly, lecturers in the sciences are more favorable to e-learning than those in the arts and social sciences. In addition, the findings demonstrated that the interaction factors (Gender) and (Education Degree) have a negative effect on lecturers' attitudes when they are combined. Besides that, the interaction of factors (Country of Last Education Degree) and (Faculty Member Types) improves attitudes toward e-learning. Based on the results, it is suggested that academic staff receive e-learning training to deepen their knowledge and understanding of such a modern teaching system. There is also a need to enhance factors related to positive attitudes towards e-learning among university lecturers. The findings of this study are necessarily significant to both teachers and educational organizations in Kurdistan Region universities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/555 Determination of Elements in Indigenous Vegetables Using ICP-MS 2022-03-18T12:00:11+00:00 Bashdar A. Sadee bashdar.sadee@su.edu.krd <p>Heavy metal concentrations were determined in indigenous vegetables collected in Erbil city-Kurdistan region of Iraq. ICP-MS was applied to determine total concentrations of Al, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn in Malva parviflora, Gundelia tournefortii, Arum spp, Spinacia oleracea,&nbsp; Mentha longifolia, Beta vulgaris subsp, Apium graveolens, Lepidium sativum L, Allium Kurrat. Schweinf and Allium fistulosum &nbsp;&nbsp;after acid digestion of the samples with the aid of&nbsp; microwave using nitric acid/ hydrogen peroxide. The contents of heavy metals in vegetable samples varied between 40-451 for Al, 0.04-0.96 for Co, 53-247 for Fe, 3.37-11.58 for Mn, 0.26-5.53 for Ni, 0.09-0.98 for Se and 1.58-4.41 for Zn on the basis of dry weight. The methodology was validated by certified reference material (CRM) GBW10015-spinach and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. &nbsp;The levels of Al, Mn and Ni in some investigated vegetables are higher than the permissible limits for human consumption.</p> 2022-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/577 Comparison of Time Series Models before and after Using Wavelet Shrinkage Filtering to Forecast the Amount of Natural Gas in Iraq 2022-06-03T21:57:48+00:00 Mohammad M. Faqe Hussein mohammad.faqe@univsul.edu.iq <p>The procedure of reducing noise or reduction before analyzing the time series is important to get accurate and reliable outcomes when building models. Wavelet Shrinkage consisting of wavelets with thresholding is a powerful mathematical method used to reduce noise that can be exposed. It has time-series observations and selects the cut-off threshold level to be suitable for removing most noise. In this paper, natural gas production data in Iraq were used during (1981-2019), which included non-stationary data or outliers, so the researcher must treat this problem before starting the analysis. Thus, the researcher selected the way of time series analysis using Box- Jenkins (ARIMA (p,d,q) models and the method of wavelet shrinkage in the two methods of cutting the threshold before and after filtering wavelet shrinkage to choose the most suitable mathematical model that defines the study data. The paper was concerned with finding an efficient model by comparing the (Box-Jenkins) linear ARIMA (p, d, q) models estimated from the time series data before and after filtering the wavelet shrinkage, and then decreasing the rank of the estimated model from the candidate observations (While maintaining the accuracy and suitability of the estimated models) and re-comparing it with the estimated linear models of the original observations, and then measuring the most efficient model based on some statistical criteria, including the AIC (Akaike information criterion), SBIC (Schwarz information criterion, Bayesian information criterion BIC)and HQIC (Hannan-Quinn information criterion). Statistical programs such as Statgraphics XVII - X64 and MATLAB were used to analyze the data. The paper reached the efficiency of wavelet shrinkage filters in treating the noise problem and getting efficient estimated models, specifically the wavelet shrinkage filter (Daubechies(db8)) with a soft-threshold cut-off estimated by the fixed-form method, and the possibility of obtaining linear models with lower orders and higher efficiency for the filtered observations compared to the corresponding models estimated from the original observations, that is, the suitable model for the data is a model ARIMA(0,1,1) for the data paved in a Daubechies method, i.e., it is preferable to do the waveform analysis of the data before analyzing the time series concerning the observations of natural gas production in Iraq The preference was given to the model estimated by Box and Jenkins&nbsp; ARIMA (0,1,1) model using wavelet shrinkage. Daubechies (db8) wavelet reduction</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/535 Distributed Denial of Service Attacks on Cloud Computing Environment‎ 2022-06-03T21:57:49+00:00 Israa T. Aziz israa_aziz@uomosul.edu.iq Ihsan H. Abdulqadder ihsan.hussein@cihanuniversity.edu.iq Thakwan A. Jawad thakwan.jawad@uoninevah.edu.iq <p>This paper aimed to identify the various kinds of distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS) attacks, their destructive capabilities, and most of all, how best these issues could be counter attacked and resolved for the benefit of all stakeholders along the cloud continuum, preferably as permanent solutions. A compilation of the various types of DDoS is done, their strike capabilities and most of all, how best cloud computing environment issues could be addressed and resolved for the benefit of all stakeholders along the cloud continuum. The key challenges against effective DDoS defense mechanism are also explored.</p> 2022-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/557 A Genetic Disaster of Human Cloning 2022-06-03T21:57:48+00:00 Yaser A. Jasim yaser.jasim@cihanuniversity.edu.iq <p>Human cloning may become a viable possibility in the far future; it is no longer a spectacular science fiction wisdom. The method is accessible. The dilemma is whether it would be ethical and acceptable in society, considering any associated consequences related to human cloning. Unlike a normal embryo, this one is abnormal, which has a genome derived from a combination of six sources, a human cloned genome would have one source. This procedure would undoubtedly eliminate the distinct qualities that a real child possesses. Its short-term and long consequences, on the contrary, are currently unclear. Cell cloning of human research potentially changes the variety of medical diseases treatment in the soon future. Human cloning or nonsexual human reproduction is a multidisciplinary problem that has been studied by scholars from several perspectives, including ethical elements and science perspectives, religion, and health. Because some scientific discoveries, such as human simulation, are related to human beliefs, several religious scholars have demonstrated distinctive responsivity to religious doctrine and consider such investigations to be contrary to divine verses and religious beliefs; as a result, human cloning has been prohibited. As a result, it is vital to investigate and analyze the reasoning of their contravention to demonstrate that scientific discoveries might not only not diminish but even deepen religion.</p> 2022-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/623 An Application of Logistic Regression Modeling to Predict Risk Factors for Bypass Graft Diagnosis in Erbil 2022-06-08T08:38:29+00:00 Azhin M. Khudhur azhin.khudhur@su.edu.krd Dler H. Kadir dler.kadir@su.edu.krd <p>In the medical world, predictive models for assessing operative risk using patient risk factors have gained appeal as a useful tool for adjusting surgical outcomes. The goal of this study was to see if there was a link between the severity of atherosclerosis as determined by angiography and changes in several key biochemical, hormonal, and hematological variables in patients who had Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery. This study included 100 adult patients who had coronary angiography, as well as a standardized case-control study of acute myocardial infarction that included 60 healthy people. In addition, not all investigations of heart attack disorders were concerned with modeling; rather, they were all concerned with classification. A family of Generalized Linear Models called Binary Logistic Regression was used. Because most phenomena' outcomes have only two values (alive/dead, exposed/not exposed, presence/absence and etc.), logistic regression analysis is a common method and plays an important role in health science. Overall, 62.5% of individuals were grouped into surgical bypass grafts, while 37.5% were healthy people. Hemoglobin&nbsp;<a href="https://medlineplus.gov/a1c.html">A1c</a> (HBA1C) was wisely significant, and the odds of one unit increase led to roughly 7.488 times higher. Age and Body Mass Index (BMI) had quite high and substantial effect parameters with a 1.2 times higher likelihood than those who have smaller BMI and younger. According to the study, smokers were more likely to be at risk of undergoing bypass surgery by 4.18 times. However, there was no significant link between gender, screening creatinine, <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="https://medlineplus.gov/cholesterol.html">Cholesterol</a></span> (CHO), Triglycerides (TG), High-density lipoprotein levels (HDL), Lower density level (LDL), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) with the outcome variable.</p> 2022-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##