Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal 2021-10-01T08:49:58+00:00 Prof. Amjad Sabir Al-Dalawi Open Journal Systems <p>Cihan University-Erbil Scientific journal (CUESJ) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUESJ a periodical journal publishes original researches in all areas of Science, Engineering and Technology. CUESJ is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUESJ provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neither article processing charge (APC) nor article submission charge (ASC). CUESJ applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts IEEE citation/referencing style. CUESJ Section Policy includes three types of publications; Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. CUESJ has a print-ISSN: <a href="">2519-6979</a>. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="">2707-6377</a> and a member of the Crossref with a doi: <a href="">10.24086/issn.2519-6979</a>.</p> Occupational Exposures and Associated Health Effects among Dumpsite Workers 2021-09-04T13:35:23+00:00 Tanya S. Salih Ameena S. M. Juma Muhsin H. Ubeid <p>Eighty-nine male workers from the landfill site in (Kany Qrzhala), Erbil, Iraq, aged from 12-65 years were investigated in this study. Each one had filled out a questionnaire sheet. Plus, a 7 ml of venous blood samples were collected from them. Total IgE and Syphilis antibodies were detected. Thus, CBC was conducted on each sample. The results recorded 92.13% of the workers lived in rural areas, while 7.87% lived in urban areas. Further, there were 58.43% smokers and 41.57% non-smokers. Furthermore, the research sample contained 38.20% single, and 61.80% married people. As education illustrated, 37.08% had no schooling, primary school education 40.45%, less than 20% had secondary school education, 2.25% acquired a diploma, and a B.Sc. degree.&nbsp;The serum concentration of total IgE of dumpsite workers revealed a significant increase when compared to the healthy group. None of the workers' sera revealed Syphilis antibodies except one case which was positive; however, it shows non-significant difference between both groups. WBC count was soared significantly in dumpsite workers when compared to the healthy individuals, yet, lymphocyte and granulocyte numbers showed non-significant increment, while monocyte number showed an insignificant rise in workers as compared to healthy group. The number of RBC's and Hb level of the Landfill workers exhibited a substantial increase. Even though, both groups' platelets did not show significant variance. The rise in WBC counts and IgE levels may be due to the exposure of these workers to allergens at the dumpsites as for allergies are the common consequence when exposed to waste and garbage.</p> 2021-08-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Prevalence of Microorganisms and Antibiotics Activity Tests of Natural and Industrial Products in Surgical Site Infections in Referral Hospitals in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region – Iraq 2021-09-04T13:35:26+00:00 Raid D. Thanoon Yara M. Mohammed <p>Background and objectives: To study the prevalence of microorganisms and antibiotics activity tests of natural and industrial products, SSIs were found in referral hospitals in Erbil, Iraq's Kurdistan province. MethodsPus samples were collected from 29 surgical patients using sterile swabs and primed for culture collection. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the bacterial activity of three types of plants (cinnamon, ginger, and radish) against three bacterial species including <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Proteus spp</em>., and <em>S.epidermidis</em>. Result: Overall 29 pus samples were processed for culture testing. One gram negative bacterium (7.14%) and thirteen gram positive cocci (92.85%) were isolated from the 14 bacteria. The three most potent isolates were found to be resistant to the variable of tested antibiotics, while they showed any sensitivity to the tested plant extracts. Cinnamon, ginger, and radish extracts were discovered to be among the few variable effective plant extracts against the tested pathogenic bacteria isolates. Conclusion: The data collected from this research showed a better way of explanation of the microorganism’s etiology of surgical site infections (SSIs) in hospitals where they might have epidemiological and healing insinuations.</p> <p>Keywords: Surgical Site Infections, Bacteria isolated from wounds, antimicrobial resistance, pus, plant extract.</p> 2021-08-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis the Structures of Some Symmetric Cipher Algorithms Suitable for the Security of IoT Devices 2021-09-13T06:25:41+00:00 Khalid F. Jasim Reem J. Ismail Abdullah A. Nahi Al-Rabeeah Soma Solaimanzadeh <p>In the past years, the Internet of Things (IoT) used in different applications and very wide range of fields (e.g. cloud services, smart environments, logistics, social and personal domains, and healthcare services). The IoT included a variety of components and devices such as RFID devices, wireless sensors, actuators, and wireless networks. Also, the IoT with smart devices adopted in various companies, organizations and public services systems. For instance, some devices like Notebooks and smartphones have been used to perform different management activities and duties. These smart devices relied on data exchange and data storage resources in clouds computing services. In this context, the saved data and exchanged data required protection against hacking operations, transferred with more secure communications channels, and safe storage environment in the clouds and local storage systems. In this paper, we proposed some encryption algorithms to tackle the issue of data confidentiality in the IoT applications. This research provided analysis and investigation of these encryption algorithms in light of components of the designs, versions of these algorithms, encryption keys, block size, round functions and the techniques used in the designs.</p> 2021-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## HIV, HBS and HCV in Dump Site Workers of Erbil Governorate 2021-10-01T08:39:48+00:00 Muhsin H. Ubeid Tanya S. Salih Ameena S. M. Juma <p>This research targeted eighty-nine males working in Kany Qrzhala, dumpsite. Age and gender comparable apparently healthy subjects were selected as healthy controls, and both of the groups were obliged to fill the study's questionnaire. Further, venous blood samples were collected from each individual for serum collection. The accumulated sera reserved for the sero-prevalence for antibodies tests of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Hepatitis C Virus, (HIV), (HBS), (HCV) respectively. The automated immunoassay analyzer Cobas E411 facilitated the conducting of the mentioned tests. The serum concentration of HIV and HBS antibodies of dumpsite workers revealed a significant increase when compared to the healthy group, while the HCV antibody serum concentration presented no significant alteration when comparing dumpsite workers to the healthy controls. The antibodies presence in the sera that belonged to workers is an indicator of exposure to the viruses due to unsanitary health conditions. This may pose a public health risk to the workers themselves, in addition to the people they are in contact with, including their families.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Estimation of (Covid-19) Cases in Kurdistan Region Using Nelson Aalen Estimator 2021-10-01T08:49:58+00:00 Sami A. Obed Parzhin A. Mohammed Dler H. kadir <p>It is described how the Nelson–Aalen estimator may be used to control the rate of a nonparametric estimate of the cumulative hazard rate function based on right censored as well as left condensed survival data, furthermore how the Nelson–Aalen estimator can be utilized to estimate various amounts. This technique is mostly applied to survival data and product quality data similar to the incorporated relative mortality in a multiplicative model with outer rates and the cumulative infection rate in a straightforward epidemic model. It is shown that tallying measures produce a structure that permits to a brought together treatment of all these different conditions, and the main little and massive sample properties of the assessor are summarized. This estimator is a weighted average of the Nelson-Aalen reliability estimates over two time periods. The suggested estimator's suitability and utility in model selection are reviewed. And a real-world dataset is evaluated to demonstrate the proposed estimator's suitability and utility. This work proposes a simple and nearly unbiased estimator to fill this gap. The information was gathered from the Ministry of Health's website between October 1, 2020, and February 28, 2021. The results of the Nelson Allen Estimator demonstrated that the odds of surviving were higher during a short period of time after being exposed to the virus. As time passes, the possibilities become slimmer. The closer the estimate comes to value 1 from 0.5 upward, the greater the chances of surviving the infection.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##