Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal <p>Cihan University-Erbil Scientific journal (CUESJ) is a biannual academic journal published by the Cihan University-Erbil. CUESJ a periodical journal publishes original researches in all areas of Science, Engineering and Technology. CUESJ is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). CUESJ provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has no article processing charge (APC). CUESJ applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts IEEE citation/referencing style. CUESJ Section Policy includes three types of publications; Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. CUESJ has a print-ISSN: <a href="">2519-6979</a>. It is a member of the ROAD with e-ISSN: <a href="">2707-6377</a> and a member of the Crossref with a doi: <a href="">10.24086/issn.2519-6979</a>.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> (Cihan University-Erbil Journal) (Prof. Salah I. Yhaya) Wed, 22 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of Drinking Water Hardness on Kidney Stones Formation in Ranya District <p>This study was conducted in Rania District, Raparin University, during September 2018–March 2019, to test the relation between water hardness and kidney stone formation. The investigation depended on questionnaire form which was distributed on 100 person in Raparin (Rania, Hajiawa, and Chwarqurna) and patients whom vested the Rania clinical during December 1, 2018–January 22, 2019 which were 238 patients and only 20 of them had kidney stones developing which represent 8.4% of the total kidney diseases. The results indicated to significant effect of gender at level of significant 5% on kidney stones formation, 10% of male, and 18% of female having kidney stones. The results of Chi-square test indicated to highly significant effect of age on kidney stone formation at level of significant (0.001). The kidney stone formation increased from 19.23% to 75% with an increase in age class from (14–34) to (54 or more) year. The negative correlation coefficient value of (r = −0.63*) was recorded between water hardness and stone risk index due to the high magnesium content of drinking water in the studied area.</p> Akram O. Esmail, Bahast A. Qadir, Hawnaz Q. Hamad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Lactobacillus Isolates from Human Mouth and Feces as Probiotics <p>Probiotics are live microbes that give many health benefits to human beings and animals, the most studied and commonly used probiotics are Gram-positive bacteria; lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. At nowadays, Lactobacillus spp. constitute more than two-thirds of the total numbers of probiotic species. The present study aimed to characterize Lactobacillus that locally isolated from human mouth and feces as probiotics. A total of three Lactobacillus isolates; Lactobacillus fermentum Lb2, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lb9, and Lactobacillus paracasei Lb10 were investigated in respect to acid and bile salts tolerance, antibiotics susceptibility, and cell surface hydrophobicity in vitro using bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons method. In comparison with the other two isolates, the isolate L. fermentum Lb2 was able to grow in all pH values and in the presence of different concentrations of bile salts. Antibiotics susceptibility profile showed that the tested Lactobacillus isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, amoxicillin, and erythromycin, while they were resistant to the other antibiotics that used in this study. L. fermentum Lb2 exhibited high surface hydrophobicity (77.26%), while the other tested isolates; L. rhamnosus Lb9 and L. paracasei Lb10 revealed moderate adhesion abilities, 68.56% and 65%, respectively. L. fermentum Lb2 exhibited good probiotic behavior with respect to acid and bile salt tolerance as well as adhesion ability to hydrocarbons.</p> Wala’a Sh. Ali, Aya T. Reza ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 07:32:14 +0000 Cytotoxic Effects of Pistacia khinjuk Seed Extracts on Different Cell Lines and its Mitogenic Effects on Blood Lymphocyte In Vitro <p>Reports indicated that extract Pistacia khinjuk has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antibacterial, and antiviral, in treating of diarrhea and throat infections and has hepatoprotective effects against acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible cytotoxic effects of methanolic and aqueous seeds extract of P. khinjuk on different tumors (rhabdomyosarcoma [RD] and murine mammary adenocarcinoma [Ahmed-Mohammed-Nahi-2003 (AMN-3)]) and normal cell lines (murine fibroblast) and its mitogenic effects on blood lymphocytes. The cytotoxic effects of P. khinjuk seed extracts were evaluated on two tumor cell lines, RD and murine mammary adenocarcinoma (AMN-3) and one normal cell line, murine fibroblast (L20B). Moreover, the mitogenic effects of the plant extract were studied, on human blood lymphocytes. Both methanolic and aqueous seed extracts of P. khinjuk significantly induced tumor cell lines and the normal cell line proliferation, especially in highest concentrations. The results show that the extracts induced significant increases in human blood lymphocyte proliferation at 72 h. This activity of plant extracts recommends it as a good mitogenic agent in researches; in conclusion, seed extracts of P. khinjuk induced proliferation of all tested cell lines. High concentrations of both aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of P. khinjuk showed mitogenic effects.</p> Reshna K. Ahmad, Kawa F. Dizaye, Asaad A. AL-Asady ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 07:35:13 +0000 Levels of Apelin, Endoglin, and Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 in Iraqi Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common causes of infertility in women of reproductive age. The aim of the study was to determine the level of apelin, insulin resistance (IR), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and endoglin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fifty PCOS patients and 40 non-PCOS infertile patients were recruited. The fasting serum levels of folliclestimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), prolactin, fasting blood glucose, insulin, and apelin at the early follicular phase were measured. Levels of apelin, LH, LH/FSH, T, and fasting insulin, as well as homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) in PCOS patients, were significantly higher than in the control group. Correlation analysis showed that apelin level was positively correlated with body mass index and HOMA-IR. Apelin levels and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in PCOS patients while show decrease levels of endoglin.</p> Noor Alhuda K. Ibrahim, Wasnaa J. Mohammad, Sanan T. Abdawahab ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 07:37:54 +0000 Investigation of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Effect on Thyroid and Testosterone Hormones in Male Rats <p>Exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) has been increasing steadily, causing more attention being paid to their potential toxicity, including cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of ZnO NPs on thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as testosterone hormone in male adult rats. A total of 54 Sprague-Dawley albino adult male rats were divided into nine groups each of six rats, daily treated intraperitoneal with ZnO NPs two different doses (30 and 60) mg/kg in three different periods of time (7, 14, and 28) days, as following: Control groups (Groups 1, 2, and 3): Respectively received intraperitoneal injection with distilled water for 7, 14, and 28 days, experimental groups (Groups 4, 5, and 6): They were rats, respectively, received intraperitoneal dose (60 mg/kg) of ZnO NPs for (7, 14, and 28) days, and group (7, 8, and 9) experimental groups were rats, respectively, received intraperitoneal dose (30 mg/kg) of ZnO NPs for (7, 14, and 28) days. Data showed high significant decrease (P &lt; 0.01) in level of T3, T4, TSH, and level of testosterone also decrease at high and low dose for 7, 14, and 28 days.</p> Noori M. Luaibi, Noor A. Zayed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 07:41:34 +0000 Investigating the Inhibitory Effect of Silver Nanoparticles against Some Species of Candida and Pathogenic Bacteria <p>Silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited inhibitory effect at the concentration of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, Candida zeylanoides, Geotrichum klebahnii, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. The maximum inhibition zone was observed against C. zeylanoides at the concentration of 100 mg/ml was 24.5 mm, while the minimum inhibition zone was observed against Geotrichum at the concentration of 25 mg/ml was 8 mm and the concentration of 12.5 mg/ml was not effective against some species.</p> Alaa M. Hasan, Sura M. Abdul Majeed, Rusol M. Al-Bahrani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 07:44:40 +0000 Nutritional Characteristics of Pregnant Women and its Relation with Anemia during Pregnancy in a Sample of Kurdish Women/Iraq <p>Anemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the nutritional characteristics of pregnant women and find out its relationship with anemia during pregnancy. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 600 pregnant women who attended four primary health-care centers which randomly selected according to the geographical area. A specially designed questionnaire was prepared by the researcher after extensive review of relevant literature. The severity of anemia is determined according to Alene and Dohe. Estimation and calculation of dietary characteristics was done according to food frequency questionnaire, frequencies and percentage, mean and standard deviations, and Chi-square test of association and regression analysis. There was a highly statistically significant association between anemia with eating vegetables and chicken, and a high significant relation of anemia with eating beef and eating nuts. Furthermore, there was a highly significant association between severity of anemia with eating nuts, and a significant association with eating vegetables, while there was no significant association with other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed that eating less than normal of vegetables, beef, and nuts were indicated risks of anemia. Eating less than normal of vegetables, beef, and nuts were indicated risks of anemia during pregnancy.</p> Rushna G. Abdulwahid, Hamdia M. Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 07:47:01 +0000 Prevalence and Characterization of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infection among Blood Donors in Erbil <p>Blood transmitting infectious disease still remains a considerable global health problem. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus&nbsp;(HCV) are two of the most commonly transmitted infectious agents. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted between&nbsp;December, 2017, and February, 2018, at the Directorate of Blood Bank in Erbil Province, Northern Iraq. During that period, a total of&nbsp;6173 blood donors donated blood; all blood donors were asked a series of questions through a structured questionnaire designed for such&nbsp;purpose. These patients were serologically examined for HBV and HCV. Positive blood samples were further analyzed serologically and&nbsp;confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Among 6173 blood donors who were investigated for HBV, 7 (0.11%) and&nbsp;98 (1.6%) were positive for hepatitis B urface antigen (HBs-Ag) and hepatitis B core Antibody (HBc-Ab), respectively, whereas during screening for HCV, 4 (0.06%) were positive for HCV-Ab. Coinfection (dual infection (HBV and HCV) was positive in 1 patient (0.01%).&nbsp;Among 98 reactive samples, 75.5% were positive for HBs antibody (HBs-Ab), the remaining 24 samples (24.5%) were regarded as occult hepatitis B infection (OBI), since they were positive for HBc-Ab, whereas negative both for HBs-Ag and HBs-Ab. The diagnosis of OBI&nbsp;could be confirmed by RT-PCR in 8 samples, 33% of samples. The overall incidence of HBV and HCV among examined blood donors&nbsp;was 0.5 %, and 0.06%, respectively. Amidst that incidence, 0.39 % were diagnosed as OBI. To prevent viral transmission through blood transfusion is needed to combine a different and sensitive method for HBV detection as well as volve tests that have high sensitivity and&nbsp;specificity for serological markers. Moreover, a molecular tool that is sensitive enough to detect very low copies of viral DNA must also be developed.</p> Chato A. Taher, Goran N. Saleh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 07:49:17 +0000 Significance of Hepatitis B Virus Diagnosis by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction over Serological Markers in Hepatitis B Virus Patients <p>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of viral hepatitis, as currently over 2 billion people have HBV infection worldwide. Nucleic acid assay and quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) have been developed for diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring of patients with HBV infection. These tests might also show correlation between HBV DNA and HBs serostatus. The study aimed to find and analyze the frequency and impact of HBsAg seropositivity among patients revealed HBV DNA negative level through quantitative estimation of both seromarkers. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Elecsys assays were used for quantitative estimation of HBV DNA and HBs antigen, respectively. A total of 256 blood samples were used from patients referred for either diagnostic purpose and/or HBV viral load monitoring after antiviral therapy. Blood profile analysis showed 12.26% HBs antigen seropositivity among patients revealed negative for nucleic acid assay for HBV DNA. Positive HBs antigen titers ranged from 1000–50,000 COI, with seronegative anti-HBs antibody test for all samples tested positive for HBs antigen. This study delineated that negative or undetectable quantitation of HBV DNA level does not exclude HBV infection; as the level might fluctuate in different phases of HBV replication. This gives an impression and raising a question about significance of replacing test for HBsAg with quantitation of HBV DNA PCR assay. Thus, the study refers to a special HBV profile outside the classical pattern.</p> Amer A. Khaleel, Salah T. Jalal, Saeed G. Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 07:55:50 +0000 Radish Juice Promote Kidney Stone Deposition in Ethylene Glycol-induced Urolithiasis in Rats <p>Urolithiasis is a well-known problem that stones could form in various parts of the urinary system and it is the most common disease of the urinary tract. The current study was planned to investigate the effect of radish juice on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced urolithiasis. Twenty-one rats randomly divided into three groups. The first group was the control group was received normal standard diet and drinking water and the second group represented the model group received 0.75% EG in drinking water ad libitum. The third group received radish juice (2 ml/kg of body weight) by gavage plus EG (0.75%) in drinking water ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for 28 days. The light microscope examination revealed a disturbed histological architecture of the kidney tissues, including dilated renal tubules, aggregation of infiltrated leukocytes inflammatory cells, and crystal deposition in the model group. The EG plus radish juice treated rats showed higher crystal density with improved renal tubule structure and alleviated inflammation. Both treated groups showed various biochemical alterations compared to control group, but the most interest biochemical result was the significant decrease of malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, and in the radish plus EG group compared to the EG group. Scanning electron microscopy showed clear structural detail about calcium oxalate crystals in which radish-treated group showed higher crystal deposition and calcified tissue compared to EG group. The present study concluded that radish juice promotes stone deposition but exerted an antioxidant effect.</p> Falah M. Aziz, Dlshad H. Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 07:58:47 +0000 Omega-3 Oil Ameliorate Histological and Ultrastructural Alterations Induced by Cadmium Chloride in Rats Testis <p>Cadmium (Cd) is considered to be one of the major environmental pollutants which have potential threat to human health. Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in the role of environmental and occupational exposures in the etiology of human infertility. Cd exposure led to obvious degenerative changes in testicular tissue. This study was performed to investigate the Cd-induced structural effects on the testes and to evaluate the possible protective effect of omega-3 oil in adult albino rats. Thirty adult male rats were used in the present work, divided randomly into five groups, six rats in each group; the first group was considered as a control group and left without treatment except the standard rat chow and tap water. The second group was given 40 mg/L of CdCl2 in drinking water while the third group was given 60 mg/L of CdCl2 in drinking water. The fourth group was given 40 mg/L of CdCl2 in drinking water plus omega-3 oil (4 g/kg diet), while the fifth group was given 60 mg/L of CdCl2 in drinking water plus omega-3 oil (4 g/kg diet), the Cd-treated rats showed dose-dependent histological and ultrastructural alterations which have been ameliorated after exposure to omega-3 oil. The present investigation concluded that omega-3 played a protective role against Cd-induced histopathological changes in rat testis.</p> Treefa F. Ismail, Falah M. Aziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 08:02:08 +0000 Bromodomain Inhibitor JQ1 as a Candidate Therapeutic Agent in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma <p>Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare tumor that develops from the mesothelial linings of the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. The actual risk factor for developing the disease is exposure to asbestos in workplace. Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain proteins are epigenetic signaling agents that associate with acetylated histones and expedite the transcription of target genes. This study investigates whether the small molecule BET protein inhibitor JQ1 specifically may be an effective therapy for MPM. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods reveal an inclusive change in gene expression implying that JQ1 is a potential inhibitor which targets the BET proteins. Our results report that JQ1 has tumor-suppressive effects as it significantly ceased cellular activity in MPM cell lines. We predict that JQ1 may be the promising therapy for pleural mesothelioma cancers.</p> Cinaria T. Albadri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 17 Jan 2020 08:05:22 +0000 Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector Inherent Techniques Comparison for Detecting and Eliminating the Black Hole Attack Nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Network <p>It is important to connect wirelessly a group of moving mobile nodes together in a static or dynamic form, to transfer digital data between them, this form known as a mobile ad hoc network. This private network can be used in different essential situations where it depends on each connected mobile node to deliver and pass the data between them, without any fixed access point or router. Unfortunately, there are different types of attacks that can affect these nodes, and steal or corrupt the data inside, one of these attacks called the black hole attack. In this paper, a compared study will be done between two major innovative techniques derived from the ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol to avoid the black hole attack; the paper will compare the two techniques in delay, throughput and packet dropping efficacy.</p> Ghassan A. Qasmarrogy, Yazen S. Almashhadani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection and Evaluation of Effective of Digital Communication of Drug on Human Body <p>Nowadays, there is a wide using of mobile and internet from various ages, due to some bad systems which they work to send signals<br>(sound wave frequency) within the music or will be spread to affect the brain of the humankind. Therefore, this paper expresses the<br>detection and evaluation of (the signal of sound frequency) which influence the human brain, it has been measured some frequency by<br>programming in the mobile and found a trend to detect such frequencies and a way to produce a human being from it.</p> Zakaria K. Jalal, Abdulrazak A. Mohammed, Adil H. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Isatis spp. Extraction on the Growth of Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans <p>In this study, The crude extraction of Isatis spp. (<em>I.tinctoria, I.busichaina and I. lusitanica)</em> were investigated for their antifungal activity. Each of methanol, ethanol, and H<sub>2</sub>O was used as a solvent. Due to find the most effective part of each species, the plant parts were used separately. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of the natural product on two common pathogenic fungi <em>Aspergillus niger &amp; Candida albicans.&nbsp;</em>The results show that most of the used plants have a significant effect on both used fungal species. Extracted each of flower, <em>I. tinctoria was shown</em>&nbsp;the best results comparing to the other used species. Extracted leaf and flower of<em> I. tinctoria </em>by methanol was show the best result on <em>Aspergillus niger &amp; Candida albicans.</em> The growth zone was around 90mm for control and &nbsp;61mm at 75% concentration of methanolic and ethanolic extraction. The flower was for followed by the stem. Depend on the results, the methanol was shown the highest number, then ethanol and the lowest inhibition zone area was for H<sub>2</sub>O extraction.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ali M.Hussein, Zehra Odabaş-Serin, Zhala B. Taha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 20 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000