Out-of-class English Practicing
Students of Private Universities in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region as a Case Study
Research in Second/Foreign language learning indicates that using English outside of the classroom is an essential part of the language learning process. However, certain studies have been cared out on university-level EFL students indicate that students use English minimally when outside of the classroom. This study furthers the research on English use outside of the classroom to more fully understand out-of-d all types of language learners and the link between language proficiency and out-of-class English language use. For methodology, three private universities in Erbil are concerned. The tools that are used in this study is a questionnaire and also interview. Validity and reliabilities are regarded here. The aims are to investigate the use of of-out-of class activity type that promotes using English and even their attitudes toward the benefits of using English outside of class. Research explores some recommendations to English language departments in the three universities which are helpful for the students’ language proficiency, the research also provides some suggestions for further studies.
Bailly, S. (2011) Teenagers learning language out of school: What, why and how do they learn? How can school help them? In P. Benson & H. Reinders (Eds.), Beyond the language classroom (pp.119-131). New York: Palgrave
Barron. B., (2006). Interest and self-sustained learning as catalysts of development: A learning ecologies perspective. Human Development, 49, 193-224.
Barron, B. (2010). Conceptualizing and tracing learning pathways over time and setting. National Society for the Study of Education, 109, 113-127.
Bäumer, T., Preis, N., Roßbach, H., Stecher, L., & Klieme, E. (2011). Education processes in life-course-specific learning environments. Z Erziehungswiss, 14, 87-101.
Benson, P. (2011). Language learning and teaching beyond the classroom: An Introduction to the field. In P. Benson & H. Reinders (Eds). Beyond the Language classroom (pp.7-16). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Blyth, D. A., & LaCroix-Dalluhn, L. (2011). Expanded learning time and Opportunities: Key principles, driving perspectives, and major challenges. New Directions for Youth Development, 131, 15-27. doi: 10.1002/yd.405.
Barker, D. (2004). Encouraging students to take their language learning outside the classroom.JALT Hokkaido Journal, 8, 79-86.
Borrero, N., and Yeh. C. J. (2010). Ecological English language learning among ethnic minority youth. Educational Researchers, 39, 571-581.
Doyle, H., & Parrish, M. (2012). Investigating students’ ways to learn English outside of class: A researchers’ narrative. Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, 3, 196-203.
Domesrifa, K. (2008). A study of using oral communication activities to enhance English speaking ability of mattayomsuksa I students (Masters’s project), Srinakharinwirot University, Bankgkok, Thailand.
Ellis, R. (2005). Instructed second language acquisition: A literature review. Wellington: Ministry of Education New Zealand.
Fagerlund, T. (2011). Learning and using English and Swedish beyond the classroom: activity systems of six upper secondary school students. (Unpublished master’s Thesis). University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Kang, S.-J. (2006). Individual and social-contextual factors affecting the learning and use of ESL: A case study of a visiting Korean physician. TESL Canada Journal, 24(1), 59-79.
Lai, C. and Gu, M. Y. (2011). Self-regulated out-of-class language learning with Technology. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24, 317-335.
Lai, C. (2013). A framework for developing self-directed technology use for language Learning. Language Learning & Technology, 17, 100-122.
Larsson, B. (2012). English out-of-school activities: A way of integrating outwards? (Unpublished Master Thesis). University of Gävle, Gävle.
Menezes, V. (2011). Affordances for language learning beyond the classroom. In P. Benson & H. Reinders (Eds.), Beyond the language classroom (pp.59-71). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Stickler, U., & Emke, M. (2011). Tandem learning in virtual spaces: Supporting non-formal and informal learning in adults. In P. Benson & H. Reinders (Eds.), Beyond the language classroom (pp.146-160). New York: Palgrave
Pearson, N. (2004). The idiosyncrasies of out-of-class language learning: A study of mainland Chinese students studying English at tertiary level in New Zealand.
In Proceedings of the Independent Learning Conference 2003. Retrieved from http://www.independentlearning.org/uploads/100836/ila03_pearson.pdf.[accessed date, October 8, 2019].
Richards, J. C. (2009). The changing face of TESOL. Plenary Speech at TESOL Convention and Exhibit. Retrieved from http://www.professorjackrichards.com/wp-content/uploads/changing-face-of-TESOL.pdf .[accessed date, October 8, 2019].
Copyright (c) 2021 Zhakaw H. Ahmed, Wrya I. Ali
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).