Effect of Drinking Water Hardness on Kidney Stones Formation in Ranya District

  • Akram O. Esmail Department of Soil and Water, College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq
  • Bahast A. Qadir Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Raparin University, Raparin-Sulaimani, Iraq
  • Hawnaz Q. Hamad Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Raparin University, Raparin-Sulaimani, Iraq
Keywords: Ca-hardness, Component, Mg-hardness, Stone risk index, Total water hardness


This study was conducted in Rania District, Raparin University, during September 2018–March 2019, to test the relation between water hardness and kidney stone formation. The investigation depended on questionnaire form which was distributed on 100 person in Raparin (Rania, Hajiawa, and Chwarqurna) and patients whom vested the Rania clinical during December 1, 2018–January 22, 2019 which were 238 patients and only 20 of them had kidney stones developing which represent 8.4% of the total kidney diseases. The results indicated to significant effect of gender at level of significant 5% on kidney stones formation, 10% of male, and 18% of female having kidney stones. The results of Chi-square test indicated to highly significant effect of age on kidney stone formation at level of significant (0.001). The kidney stone formation increased from 19.23% to 75% with an increase in age class from (14–34) to (54 or more) year. The negative correlation coefficient value of (r = −0.63*) was recorded between water hardness and stone risk index due to the high magnesium content of drinking water in the studied area.


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How to Cite
Esmail A, Qadir B, Hamad H. Effect of Drinking Water Hardness on Kidney Stones Formation in Ranya District. cuesj [Internet]. 20Jan.2020 [cited 21May2024];4(1):1-. Available from: https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/174
Research Article