Investigation of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Effect on Thyroid and Testosterone Hormones in Male Rats
Exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) has been increasing steadily, causing more attention being paid to their potential toxicity, including cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of ZnO NPs on thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as testosterone hormone in male adult rats. A total of 54 Sprague-Dawley albino adult male rats were divided into nine groups each of six rats, daily treated intraperitoneal with ZnO NPs two different doses (30 and 60) mg/kg in three different periods of time (7, 14, and 28) days, as following: Control groups (Groups 1, 2, and 3): Respectively received intraperitoneal injection with distilled water for 7, 14, and 28 days, experimental groups (Groups 4, 5, and 6): They were rats, respectively, received intraperitoneal dose (60 mg/kg) of ZnO NPs for (7, 14, and 28) days, and group (7, 8, and 9) experimental groups were rats, respectively, received intraperitoneal dose (30 mg/kg) of ZnO NPs for (7, 14, and 28) days. Data showed high significant decrease (P < 0.01) in level of T3, T4, TSH, and level of testosterone also decrease at high and low dose for 7, 14, and 28 days.
D. Segets, J. Gradl, R. K. Taylor, V. Vassilev and W. Peukert. “Analysis of optical absorbance spectra for the determination of ZnO nanoparticle size distribution, solubility, and surface energy”. ACS Nano, vol. 3, pp. 1703-1710, 2009.
H. Haase, S. Overbeck and L. Rink. “Zinc supplementation for the treatment or prevention of disease: Current status and future perspectives”. Experimental Gerontology, vol. 43, pp. 394-408, 2008.
R. Tankhiwale and S. K. Bajpai. “Preparation, characterization and antibacterial applications of ZnO-nanoparticles coated polyethylene films for food packaging”. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, vol. 90, pp. 16-20, 2012.
L. He, Y. Liu, A. Mustapha and M. Lin. “Antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum”. Microbiological Research, vol. 166, pp. 207-215, 2011.
J. W. Rasmussen, E. Martinez, P. Louka and D. G. Wingett. “Zinc oxide nanoparticles for selective destruction of tumor cells and potential for drug delivery applications”. Expert Opinion Drug Delivery, vol. 7, pp. 1063-1077, 2010.
B. Wang, W. Feng, M. Wang, T. Wang, Y. Gu, M. Zhu, H. Ouyang, J. Shi, F. Zhang, Y. Zhao and Z. Chai. “Acute toxicological impact of nano-and submicro-scaled zinc oxide powder on healthy adult mice”. Journal of Nanopartical Research, vol. 10, pp. 263-276, 2008.
H. Yin, P. S. P.S. Casey and M. J. McCall. “Surface modifications of ZnO nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity”. Journal of Nanoscience
Nanotechnology, vol. 10, pp. 7565-7570, 2010.
D. Randall, W. Burggren and K. French. “Eckert Animal Physiology: Mechanisms and Adaptations”. New York: WH Freeman and Company, 1997.
N. Stathatos. “Thyroid physiology”. The Medical Clinics North nAmerican, vol. 96, pp. 165-173, 2012.
J. R. Arthur and G. J. Beckett. “Thyroid function”. British Medical Bulletin, vol. 55, 658-668, 1999.
K. Aihara, Y. Nishi, S. Hatano, M. Kihara, K. Yoshimitsu, N. Takeichi, T. Ito, H. Ezaki and T. Usui. “Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium metabolism in thyroid disease”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 40, pp. 26-35, 1984.
C. A. Clausen, S. N. Kartal, R. A. Arango and F. Green. “The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance”. Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 6, pp 427, 2011.
M. S. Breedlove, N. V. Watson and M. R. Rosenzweig. “Biological Psychology: An Introduction to Behavioral, Cognitive, and Clinical
Neuroscience”. 6th ed. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, 2010.
T. O. Oyegbile and C. A. Marler. “Winning fights elevates testosterone levels in California mice and enhances future ability to win fights”. Hormones Behavior, vol. 48, 259-267, 2005.
Z. Han, Q. Yan, W. Ge, Z. G. Liu, S. Gurunathan, M. De Felici, W. Shen and X. F. Zhang. “Cytotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on mouse testicular cells”. International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 11, pp. 5187-5203, 2016.
L. Braverman, S. Ingbar and K. Sterling. “Conversion of thyroxine to triidothyronine in normal human subjects”. Science, vol. 169, pp. 1099-1100, 1970.
B. J.Ormston, L. Alexander, D. C. Evered, F. Clark, T. Bird, D. Appleton and R. Hall. “Thyrotropin response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in ophthalmic graves’ disease: Correlation with other aspects of thyroid function, thyroid suppressibility and activity of eye signs”. Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 2, pp. 369-376, 1973.
D.A. Fisher. “Physiology variations in thyroid hormones. Physiological and pathophysiological considerations”. Clinical Chemistry, vol. 42, pp. 135-139, 1996.
R. Sigberg. “Serum sex hormone concentration in adolescent amenorrhoea”. Annales Chirurgiae et Gynaecologiae, vol. 76, pp. 176-180, 1987.
S. V. C. Cheric and M Rafieirad. “The effect of acute prescription of zinc oxide nanoparticles on thyroid hormone in adult male rats”. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 5906-5914, 2015.
H. R. Espanani, M. Fazilati, L. Sadeghi, V. YousefiBabadi, S. Bakhshiani and E. Amraie. “Investigation the zinc oxide nanoparticle’s effect on sex hormones and cholesterol in rat”. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 54-58, 2013.
C. E. Dean, B. M. Hargis and P.S. Hargis. “Effects of zinc toxicity on thyroid function and histology in broiler chicks”. Toxicology Letters, vol. 57, pp. 309-318, 1991.
C. Lu, J. Chan and P. Walfish. “Selective effect of zinc compared to other divalent metals on L-triiodothyronine binding to rat c-erbA α and β proteins”. Biochemistry International, vol. 21, p. 191-198, 1990.
S. Kaya, T. Kececi and S. Haliloğlu. “Effects of zinc and Vitamin A supplements on plasma levels of thyroid hormones, cholesterol, glucose and egg yolk cholesterol of laying hens”. Research in Veterinary Science, vol. 71, pp. 135-139, 2001.
T. Kececi and E. Keskin. “Zinc supplementation decreases total thyroid hormone concentration in small ruminants”. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, vol. 50, pp. 93-100, 2002.
F. A. Hassan, R. Mahmoud and I. E. El-Araby. “Growth performance, serum biochemical, economic evaluation and IL6 gene expression in growing rabbits fed diets supplemented with zinc nanoparticles”. Zagazig Veterinary Journal, vol. 45, pp. 238‑249, 2017.
M. S. Baweja, D. D. Poonam and D. K. Dhawan. “Effectiveness of zinc in regulating serum T3, T4 and TSH levels in 131I-treated female Wistar rats”. Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 17, pp. 64-67, 2002.
A. Shirband, H. Azizian, M. Pourentezari, M. E. Rezvani, M. Anvari and M. Esmaeilidehaj. “Dose-dependent effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on thyroid hormone concentrations in liver enzymes: Possible tissue destruction”. Global Journal of Medicine Researches and Studies, vol. 1, pp. 28-31, 2014.
A. R. Talebi, L. Khorsandi and M. Moridian. “The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on mouse spermatogenesis”. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, vol. 30, pp. 1203-1209, 2013.
S. Omidi, M. Negahdary and H. Aghababa. “The effects of zirconium oxide nanoparticles on FSH, LH and testosterone hormones in female Wistar rats”. Electronic Journal of Biology, vol. 11, pp. 46-51, 2015.
F. F. Mohammadi, A. Noori, M. Momayez, L. Sadeghi, K. Shirani and B. V. Yousefi. “The effects of nano titanium dioxide (TiO2) in
spermatogenesis in Wistar rat”. European Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 3, pp. 145-149, 2013.
H. Fuse, T. Kazama, S. Ohta and Y. Fujiuchi. “Relationship between zinc concentrations in seminal plasma and various sperm parameters”. International Urology and Nephrology, vol. 31, pp. 401-408, 1999.
H. Shirvani, A. Noori and A. M. Mashayekh. “The effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the growth and puberty of newborn male Wistar rats”. International Journal of Basic Sciences and Applied Research, vol. 3, pp. 180-185, 2014.
E. H. Reza, S. Kobra, S. Leila, Y. Vahid and A. Esmaiel. “Investigation of the zinc oxide nanoparticles effect on testosterone, cholesterol
and cortisol in rats. Research Journal Recent Science, vol. 3, pp. 14-19, 2014.
A. Kolesarova, M. Capcarova, A. Sirotkin, M. Medvedova and J. Kovacik. “Cobalt-induced changes in the IGF-I and progesterone release, expression of proliferation-and apoptosisrelated peptides in porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro”. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, vol. 45, pp. 810-817, 2010.
A. W. Meikle. “The interrelationships between thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism in men and boys”. Thyroid, vol, 14, pp. 17-25, 2004.
A. Kumar, B. P. Mohanty and L. Rani. “Secretion of testicular steroids and gonadotrophins in hypothyroidism”. Andrologia, vol. 39, pp. 253-260, 2007.
Copyright (c) 2020 Noori M. Luaibi, Noor A. Zayed
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).