Assessment of Deviations in Iraqi Banks’ Balance Sheet Budgets

A Case Study of Iraqi Islamic and Commercial Banks

  • Nazar H. Abbas Department of Accounting, Cihan University- Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Ali J. Jaafar Department of Accounting, Cihan University- Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Deviations, Balance Sheet, Budgets, Iraqi Banks, Planning


Deviations are the difference between the planning budget and the actual for financial periods and specific financial accounts, and it is the tool that management uses it to control and to know the reality of achieving pre-set plans. The success of the budget and its positive deviation is evidence of achieving the institution’s financial goals, and the negative deviation of the budget is evidence of the failure to achieve the budget, and then the administration must identify the causes of the deviation and address it. The research aims to analyze the results of the balance sheet budget and comparing them with the actual results, and determine the deviations if they are negative or positive for a sample of Iraqi private banks that are Consisting of (Islamic banks and commercial banks). In addition, the study sample consisted of Baghdad Bank, the Middle East Bank, Iraqi Islamic Bank, and National Islamic Bank for the fiscal years 2016 and 2017, as these institutions were chosen because they published discretionary budgets in their financial statements. Furthermore, the SPSS statistical tool
was used in the study to analyze the deviation data. Islamic banks are better than commercial banks in terms of the rate of implementation of planning budgets since the majority of their statistical results are positive, which was one of the researchers’ most important findings.


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How to Cite
Abbas, N., & Jaafar, A. (2021). Assessment of Deviations in Iraqi Banks’ Balance Sheet Budgets. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(1), 88-92.