Enhancing Wireless Sensor Networks Routing Protocols based on Cross Layer Interaction

Keywords: Transmission power, wireless sensor node, routing protocol, cross-layer interaction


Wireless sensor networks aim to develop a smart city based on sensing environment. The routing protocols of wireless sensor networks is important to transfer the data in smart cities since sensor nodes have limited power and transmission range. The aim of this research is to enhance wireless sensor networks routing protocols based on proposed cross-layer interaction between physical layer and network layer also a proposed routing table information of wireless sensor nodes is developed to consider the transmission power of neighbor’s nodes to determine the next hop. Cross-layer interaction provides a useful information and effective adaptation for WSN routing protocols. As a result, the proposed routing protocol shows an improvement in network performance when number of intermediate nodes are minimized.


Download data is not yet available.


K. Z. Ghafoor, M. Guizani, L. Kong, H. S. Maghdid, and K. F. Jasim. Enabling efficient coexistence of DSRC and C-V2X in vehicular networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134-140, 2020.

M. K. Faaeq, N. K. N. Mat, A. K. Faieq, M. M. Rasheed, and Q. H. Al-Salami. Towards of smart cities based on the sustainability of digital services. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 28, 2018.

M. Carlos-Mancilla, E. López-Mellado, and M. Siller. Wireless sensor networks formation: Approaches and techniques. Journal of Sensors, vol. 2016, p. 2081902, 2016.

H. F. Hasan, A. A. Mahdi, and V. Zira. Cost and Energy Efficient Hybrid Wireless Optical Networks: FiWi Access Network. Massachusetts: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, p. 978, 2019.

L. Chelouah, F. Semchedine, and L. Bouallouche-Medjkoune. Localization protocols for mobile wireless sensor networks: A survey. Computers and Electrical Engineering, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1-19, 2017.

A. N. Abdulfattah, C. C. Tsimenidis, and A. Yakovlev. Ultralow Power m-sequence code generator for body sensor node applications Integration. VLSI Journal, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 89-93, 2019.

C. H. Wu, and Y. C. Chung. Heterogeneous wireless sensor network deployment and topology control based on irregular sensor model. In: C. Cérin, and K. C. Li, (Eds.), Second International Conference on Grid and Pervasive Computing. GPC 2007. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Paris, France: Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 78-88, 2007.

S. Sankar, H. Ranganathan, and S. Venkatasubramanian. A study on next generations heterogeneous sensor networks. In: 2009 5th IEEE GCC Conference and Exhibition; 17-19 March 2009. Kuwait: IEEE, pp. 1-4, 2009.

U. Patil, A. V. Kulkarni, R. Menon, and M. Venkatesan. A novel AEB-AODV based AADITHYA cross layer design hibernation algorithm for energy optimization in WSN. Wireless Personal Communication, vol. 117, pp. 1419-1439, 2020.

A. Awang, X. Lagrange, and D. R. Sanchez. A cross-layer medium access control and Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Journées Doctorales en Informatique et Réseaux, vol. 4, p. 02161417, 2009.

N. A. Alrajeh, S. Khan, J. Lloret, and J. Loo. Secure routing protocol using cross-layer design and energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 374796, 2013.

V. Ramasamy. Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: An Overview. India: IntechOpen, 2017.

N. Sabor, S. Sasaki, M. Abo-Zahhad, and S. M. Ahmed. A comprehensive survey on hierarchical-based routing protocols for mobile wireless sensor networks: Review, taxonomy, and future directions. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2017, p. 2818542, 2017.

W. Jung, S. Hong, M. Ha, Y. J. Kim, and D. Kim. SSL-based lightweight security of IP-based wireless sensor networks. In: International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, Toronto, Canada: Leonard Barolli Laboratory, 2009.

Á. Lédeczi, and M. Maróti. Wireless sensor node localization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 370, pp. 85-99, 2012.

L. R. Flaih, and S. A. B. Al-Deen. Machine to machine measurement (M3) framework for web of things. Journal of Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 118-125, 2019.

G. A. Qasmarrogy. Improving VoIP transmission for IEEE 802.11 n 5GHz MANET. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 157-162, 2021.

RF Power Values. United States: Cisco Systems Inc., 2008. Available form: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk722/tk809/technologies_tech_note09186a00800e90fe.shtml. [Last accessed on 2021 Jun 01].

D. Son1, B. Krishnamachari, and J. Heidemann. Experimental study of the effects of transmission power control and blacklisting in wireless sensor networks. In: 1st Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks. United States: IEEE, 2004.

G. A. Qasmarrogy. Optimizing video transmission performance in 5GHz MANET, Journal of Duhok University, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 402-411, 2020.

A. H. M. Al-Dalawie, and F. M. Zeki. Design and implementation a non-uniform helical antenna in frequency range of 450-850 MHz for ultra-high-frequency television application. Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 75-79, 2019.

S. Yamazaki, Y. Abiko, and H. Mizuno. A simple and energy-efficient flooding scheme for wireless routing. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2020, p. 8832602, 2020.

G. A. Qasmarrogy, and Y. S. Mahmood. Capacity analysis of multiple-input-multiple-output system over rayleigh and rician fading channel. Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 70-74, 2019.

How to Cite
Ismail R, Jasim K, Ismael S, Solaimanzadeh S. Enhancing Wireless Sensor Networks Routing Protocols based on Cross Layer Interaction. cuesj [Internet]. 30Nov.2021 [cited 19Apr.2024];5(2):52-5. Available from: https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/445
Review Article