Governance and Cadre Deployment in South Africa
The former Minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs, Dr Zweli Mkhize, painted a bleak picture about the state of local government. The minister stated that 87 municipalities – about a third of South Africa’s total of 257 – remain dysfunctional or distressed. Underpinning this dysfunctionality was mismanagement due to political instability or interference, corruption and incompetence. This then results in poor service delivery, thus prolonging the periods of underdevelopment and poor access to basic services. This paper argues that cadre deployment has hindered the effective service delivery in local municipalities, thus the domino effect has been riots, protests and wasteful expenditure at the local government level. This results in participatory exclusion when it comes to collective development. By strictly analysing relevant literature related to corruption, and cadre deployment within the local government domain in South Africa, it became evident that the quest for socio-economic development in rural areas is deeply dependent on local governance having competent and skilled personnel who would prioritise service delivery rather than political loyalty at the expense of development. Nonetheless, the main question going forward is to what extent will loyalty ahead of competence be at the core of municipal governance and what implications will this have for future developmental prospects, good governance and service delivery?
Areff, A. (2012). ANC Cadre Deployment “Drags Down Public Services”. Available from: https://mg.co.za/article/2012-07-12-anc-cadre-deployment. [Last accessed on 2021 May 19].
Auditor General of South Africa. (2021). Auditor-General Calls on Government Leaders to Ensure “Sustainable” Audit Outcomes. Available from: https://www.agsa.co.za/Portals/0/Reports/PFMA/201920/2021%20PFMA%20Media%20Release%20FINALISED%202.pdf. [Last accessed on 2021 May 09].
Bauer, C. (2000). Public sector corruption and its control in South Africa. In: Corruption and Development in Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p218-233.
BBC News. (2019). South Africa Elections: Has the ANC Built Enough Homes? Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-48093711. [Last accessed on 2021 May 09].
Bouckaert, P.N. (1997). The negotiated revolution: South Africa’s transition to a multiracial democracy. Stanford Journal of International Law, 33, 375.
Breakfast, N., Bradshaw, G., & Nomarwayi, T. (2019). Violent service delivery protests in post-apartheid South Africa, 1994-2017-a conflict resolutionperspective. African Journal of Public Affairs, 11(1), 106-126.
Brown, M.J., & Roman, N. (2019). Primary Caregivers Perceptions of the Role of Fathers in the Provision of Nutritional Care in a Resource Constrained Environment in Cape Town, South Africa. Available from https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-4675/v1. [Last accessed on 2021 Jun 16].
Chamisa, S.F., & Chava, E. (2018). Cadre deployment policy and its effects on performance management in South African local government: A critical review. Politeia, 37(1), 3849.
Cheeseman, N., Bertrand, E., & Husaini, S. (2019), “Cadre Deployment”, a Dictionary of African Politics. Available from: https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&AuthType=sso&db=edsoro&AN=oro.9780191828836.013.0066&site=eds-live. [Last accessed on 2021 Jun 20].
Dasandi, N., & Esteve, M. (2017). The politics-bureaucracy interface in developing countries. Public Administration and Development, 37(4), 231-245.
du Toit, P., & de Jager, N. (2014). South Africa’s dominant-party system in comparative perspective. Taiwan Journal of Democracy, 10(2), 93-113.
Fakir, E. (2007). Public Service Delivery in a Democratic, Developmental State. Available from: https://gsdrc.org/document-library/public-service-delivery-in-a-democratic-developmental-state. [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 09].
Hoffman, P. (2013). Service delivery: Constraints, corruption and cadres. In: Plaatjies, D., editor. Protecting the Inheritance: Governance and Public Accountability in Democratic South Africa. Sunnyside: Jacana Media.
Jankielsohn, R., & Mollentze, S. (2021). The national democratic revolution as an ideological instrument for transformation in South Africa. Eximia, 1(1), 1-18.
Jison, J. (2018). The Dichotomy of Politics and Public Administration: Lessons from the Perennial Debate. Available from: https://www.iapss.org/2014/06/30/the-dichotomy-of-politics-and-public-administration-lessons-from-the-perennial-debate. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 15].
Kanyane, M. (2014). Exploring challenges of municipal service delivery in South Africa (1994-2013). Africa’s Public Service Delivery and Performance Review, 2(1), 90-110.
Kok, L. (2017). Roadmap for Effective and Efficient Cadre Deployment in South Africa. Available from: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3026392. [Last accessed on 2021 Aug 07].
Magomane, T. (2012). The Impact of Cadre Deployment On Service Delivery: The Case of Mopani Local Municipalities in Limpopo Province. Master’s thesis, Governance and Political Transformation, South Africa.
Magubane, J. (2021). Cadre Deployment was a “Disaster”, says ANC Veteran. Available from: https://www.news24.com/fin24/economy/cadre-deployment-was-a-disaster-says-anc-veteran-20210805. [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 15].
Mantzaris, E.A. (2017). Trends, realities and corruption in supply chain management: South Africa and India. African Journal of Public Affairs, 9(8), 121-134.
Masuku, M.M., & Jili, N.N. (2019). Public service delivery in South Africa: The political influence at local government level. Journal of Public Affairs, 19(4), e1935
Masuku, M.M., Jili, N.N. (2019). Public service delivery in South Africa: The political influence at local government level. Journal of Public Affairs, 19(4), p.e1935.
Mavuso, B. (2020). Another State-owned Enterprise Collapses are we Learning Anything? Available from: https://mg.co.za/analysis/2020-02-24-another-state-owned-enterprise-collapses-are-we-learning-anything. [Last accessed on 2021 Nov 03].
Mdlongwa, E.T. (2014). Local government at the heart of poor service delivery. Rhodes Journalism Review, 34, 39.
Miller, D., Saunders, R., & Oloyede, O. (2008). South African corporations and post-apartheid expansion in Africa-creating a new regional space. African Sociological Review, 12(1), 1-19.
Mkhongi, B. (2013). Build the Cadre for the National Democratic Revolution. Available from: https://ujcontent.uj.ac.za/vital/access/services/Download/uj:42589/source1 [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 09].
Mngomezulu, S. (2020). Political interference in the administration of service delivery in Umlalazi local municipality of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 12(1), 38-45.
Ngcamu, B.S. (2019). Exploring service delivery protests in post-apartheid South African municipalities: A literature review. The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa, 15(1), 9.
Nkomo, S. (2017). Public Service Delivery in South Africa: Councillors and Citizens Critical Links in Overcoming Persistent Inequities. Afrobarometer Policy Paper No. 42. Available from: https://media.africaportal.org/documents/ab_policypaperno42_local_service_delivery_in_southafrica.pdf. [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 09].
Nomarwayi, T., Bradshaw, G., & Breakfast, N.B. (2020). Violent service delivery protests in the Nelson Mandela bay municipality (Nmbm): A case study of Walmer Township. Gender and Behaviour, 18(1), 1-16.
Pattillo, K.M.C. (2012). Quiet Corruption: Teachers’ Unions and Leadership in South African. Honors Theses.
Penxa, L. (2016). Civil Society and Public Accountability: The Need for Active Monitoring. Available from: http://psam.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Civil-Society-and-Public-Accountability.pdf. [Last accessed on 2021 Oct 06].
Petersen, S. (2020). Does a Dominant Party Democracy Erode Constitutional Legitimacy? In: An Analysis of the African National Congress and the South African constitution (Master’s Thesis, Faculty of Law).
Pithouse, R. (2009), Abahlali base Mjondolo and the struggle for the city in Durban, South Africa. Cidades, 6(9), 241-270.
Pring, C., & Vrushi, J. (2019). Global Corruption Barometer: Africa 2019. Transparency International. Available from: https://www.transparency.org/en/publications/gcb-africa-2019. [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 09].
Qobo, M. (2019). Party and State in South Africa. Available from: https://media.africaportal.org/documents/CDE-VIEWPOINTS-Party-and-State-in-South-Africa-final.pdf. [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 09].
Reddy, P.S. (2016). The politics of service delivery in South Africa: The local government sphere in context. The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa, 12(1), 1-8.
Resane, K.T. (2021). White fragility, white supremacy and white normativity make theological dialogue on race difficult. In Skriflig, 55(1), 2661.
Sebake, B.K., & Sebola, M.P. (2014). Growing trends and tendencies of corruption in the South African public service: Negative contribution to service delivery. Journal of Public Administration, 49(3), 744-755.
Shava, E., & Chamisa, S.F. (2018). Cadre deployment policy and its effects on performance management in South African local government: A critical review. Politeia, 37(1), 3849.
South African Government. (2014). GDE Reviews 20 Years of Public Schooling in Gauteng. Available from: https://www.gov.za/gde-reviews-20-years-public-schooling-gauteng. [Last accessed on 2021 Aug 16].
South African News. (2014). More South Africans in Higher Education. Available from: https://www.sanews.gov.za/south-africa/more-south-africans-higher-education. [Last accessed on 2021 Aug 19].
Stillman, R.J. (1973). Woodrow Wilson and the study of administration: A new look at an old essay. American Political Science Review, 67(2), 582-588.
Svara, J.H. (2008). Beyond dichotomy: Dwight Waldo and the intertwined politics-administration relationship. Public Administration Review, 68(1), 46-52.
Thebe. (2017). Political education for good governance in South Africa’s local government and communities. African Journal of Public Affairs, 9(5), 123-135.
Tickle, D. (2018). Country note: “Irregular” and “wasteful” expenditure, tax, and fiscal citizenship in South Africa. Intertax, 46(3), 252-260.
Tshishonga, N. (2014). Cadre deployment and its implications on service delivery in South Africa: A human development capability approach. Journal of Public Administration, 49(3), 891-908.
Twala, C. (2014). The African National Congress (ANC) and the cadre deployment policy in the post-apartheid South Africa: A product of democratic centralization or a recipe for a constitutional crisis? Journal of Social Sciences, 41(2), 159-165.
Copyright (c) 2022 Victor H. Mlambo, Sphephelo P. Zubane, Xolani Thusi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).