Grid to Ground Solutions in Construction Projects

Keywords: Global navigation satellite system, total station, grid ground distance, scale factor, conversion


Nowadays, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) techniques are considered the cornerstones in the field of surveying and civil engineering industry. At present, a plethora of companies is employing GNSS in their daily activities. The engineering construction projects are designed based on ground distances although rapid static works on grid coordinate system, where the distances between points vary from the ground. The established control points should be compatible with the design by converting distances to ground. This study investigates the effect of the scale factor (SF) to reduce the linear distortion when grid is converted to ground. For this purpose, eight different distances from 64.858 m to 887.974 m were taken with rapid static method. The results reveal that whereas the distances are increased, the difference between the grid and ground is proportional, and for the smallest distance, the difference was 54 mm and for the largest was 398 mm. Besides, the grid distances were converted to ground distances using the combined SFs that works as a divider; the average difference was decreased from 175 mm to 45 mm, and the maximum difference was decreased from 398 mm to 85 mm.


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Author Biography

Shamal F. Ahmed, Department of Surveying and Geomatics, Faculty of Engineering, Tishk International University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Shamal Fatah Ahmed is a lecturer at the Department of Surveying and Geomatics, Faculty of Engineering, Tishk International University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.  He holds BSc and MSc in geomatics engineering. His research interest  are GNSS, Network Adjustment, Deformation monitoring and analysis, and Processing software.



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How to Cite
Ahmed S. Grid to Ground Solutions in Construction Projects. cuesj [Internet]. 30Dec.2022 [cited 1Feb.2023];6(2):161-5. Available from:
Research Article