The Role of Workplace Enviousness on Individual Productivity and Organizational Behavior

Keywords: Counterproductive work behavior, Organizational citizenship behavior, Iraqi colleges, Partial least squares-structural equation modeling, Workplace envy


As a result of its negative consequences for college academics, workplace envy is one of the important areas to study and investigate its results. Thus, this study attempts to find out individuals’ productivity affected by envy in the workplace (CWBI) and organizational citizenship behavior directly benefi ts individuals (OCBI) in the context of Iraqi colleges. A survey was conducted among the lecturers at Baghdad University’s colleges in Iraq, with 182 lecturers representing a response rate of 50%. The researcher used two-step approach with partial least squares-structural equation modeling by Smart PLS to test the hypotheses. As anticipated, the research findings point that workplace envy positively influenced CWBI (accepting H1). Furthermore, results indicated that workplace envy negatively influenced OCBI (accepting H2). The results of this research have various implications for colleges in general and Iraqi colleges in particular. The scientific impact that the results of the present study will contribute to practitioners is demonstrated by highlighting the factors that lead to reducing CWBI and strengthening OCBI in colleges. To enhance the OCBI and minimize the CWBI in colleges, it is advised that the management should encourage academic cooperation and create a work environment suitable for the academics. This can be achieved by forming research teams to work on joint scientific projects and by allowing qualified academics to participate in teaching, supervising postgraduate students, and discussion committees. Providing positive organizational support can motivate the academics to perform better, exhibit responsible behavior, and become productive members of the college community.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Mustafa J. Issa, Department of Business Administration - College of Management and Economics - University of Baghdad

Mustafa J. Issa is an Assistant Professor at Department of Business Administration , College of Management and Economics University of Baghdad. His research interests are management and economics.

Qusay H. Al-Salami, Department of Business Administration, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Qusay A. Al-Salami is an assistant prof. at Department of Business Administration, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. His research interests are: Operating research, computer science, marketing.


Al-Salami, Q.H., & Abdalla, S.N. (2022). The impact of academic satisfaction as a mediator on international conferences. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(1), 19-26.

Al-Salami, Q.H., El-Zelawi, F.I., & Sultan, A.S. (2023). Customer satisfaction on quality of ISO standard 9126 services in electronic banking in Libya. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(1), 58-67.

Al-Salami, Q.H., Saadi, I.A., Sawadi, Z.T., & Saleh, R.K. (2019). The factors affecting customer relationship management implementation at DHL company in Baghdad, Iraq. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(1), 43-51.

Anderson, J.C., & Gerbing, D.W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.

Aubé, C., Rousseau, V., Mama, C., & Morin, E.M. (2009). Counterproductive behaviors and psychological well-being: The moderating effect of task interdependence. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24, 351-361.

Bagozzi, R.P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16, 74-94.

Bedeian, A.G. (1995). Workplace envy. Organizational Dynamics, 23(4), 49-56.

Bennett, R.J., & Robinson, S.L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 349-360.

Braun, S., Aydin, N., Frey, D., & Peus, C. (2018). Leader narcissism predicts malicious envy and supervisor-targeted counterproductive work behavior: Evidence from field and experimental research. Journal of Business Ethics, 151, 725-741.

Brimecombe, M., Magnusen, M.J., & Bunds, K.S. (2014). Navigating the storm: A counterproductive work behavior and leadership case study in a Division I FBS School. Sport Management Review, 17(2), 219-237.

Chernyak-Hai, L., & Tziner, A. (2014). Relationships between counterproductive work behavior, perceived justice and climate, occupational status, and leader-member exchange. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 30(1), 1-12.

Chin, W.W., Marcolin, B.L., & Newsted, P.R. (2003). A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic-mail emotion/adoption study. Information Systems Research, 14(2), 189-217.

Cohen, A. (2016). Are they among us? A conceptual framework of the relationship between the dark triad personality and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). Human Resource Management Review, 26(1), 69-85.

Cohen-Charash, Y. (2009). Episodic envy. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(9), 2128-2173.

Cohen-Charash, Y., & Mueller, J.S. (2007). Does perceived unfairness exacerbate or mitigate interpersonal counterproductive work behaviors related to envy? Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 666-680.

Dogan, K., & Vecchio, R.P. (2001). Managing envy and jealousy in the workplace. Compensation and Benefits Review, 33(2), 57-64.

Duffy, M.K., Shaw, J.D., & Schaubroeck, J.M. (2008). Envy in organizational life. In: Envy: Theory and Research. Vol. 2. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p167-189.

Emerson, R.M. (1976). Social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 335-362.

Erdil, O., & Müceldili, B. (2014). The effects of envy on job engagement and turnover intention. Procedia-social and Behavioral Sciences, 150, 447-454.

Fatah, S.J. (2019). Applying talent management practices by management involvement. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(1), 1-6.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 382-388.

Fox, S., & Miles, D. (2001). Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to job stressors and organizational justice: Some mediator and moderator tests for autonomy and emotions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59(3), 291-309.

Gefen, D., & Straub, D. (2005). A practical guide to factorial validity using PLS-Graph: Tutorial and annotated example. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 16(1), 91-109.

Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M.C. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4(1), 7.

Geisser, S. (1974). A predictive approach to the random effect model. Biometrika, 61(1), 101-107.

Ghadi, M.Y. (2018). Empirical examination of theoretical model of workplace envy: Evidences from Jordan. Management Research Review, 41(21), 1438-1459.

Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Vol. 38. United States: Sage Publications. p220-221.

Hair, J.F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40, 414-433.

Hareli, S., & Weiner, B. (2002). Dislike and envy as antecedents of pleasure at another’s misfortune. Motivation Emotion, 26, 257-277.

Heikkinen, E., & Isola, A. (2004). Student nurses’ experiences and perceptions of envy in one nurse education environment in Finland. Nurse Education Today, 24(3), 160-168.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43, 115-135.

Jameel, A.S., Massoudi, A., Hamdi, S.S., & Ahmad, A.R. (2021). The role of transformational and transactional leadership as predictors of organizational citizenship behavior in education system. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(1), 56-62.

Jameel, A.S., Massoudi, A.H., & Agha, A.M.Q. (2021). Knowledge sharing among academic staff in the higher education institution. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(1), 67-74.

Jami, M.S., & Agha, A.M.Q. (2022). The relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior: Charity organizations in Erbil in Iraq. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(1), 1-5.

Jami, M.S., Massoudi, A.H., & Al-Salami, Q.H. (2023). Ethical leadership role in job embeddedness and job involvement . Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(1), 11-15.

Khan, A.K., Quratulain, S., & Bell, C.M. (2014). Episodic envy and counterproductive work behaviors: Is more justice always good? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(1), 128-144.

Kim, S., & Radosevich, D.J. (2007). The impact of workplace envy on organizational citizenship behavior with leader-member exchange in the service industry. Review of Business Research, 7, 42-48.

Kim, S., O’neill, J.W., & Cho, H.M. (2010). When does an employee not help coworkers? The effect of leader– member exchange on employee envy and organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29, 530-537.

Krischer, M.M., Penney, L.M., & Hunter, E.M. (2010). Can counterproductive work behaviors be productive? CWB as emotion-focused coping. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 154-166.

Laila, U.E., Iqbal, S., & Rasheed, M. (2019). Abusive supervision and workplace deviance: The moderating role of power distance. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 13, 334-357.

Levine, E.L. (2010). Emotion and power (as social influence): Their impact on organizational citizenship and counterproductive individual and organizational behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 20, 4-17.

Liu, F., Liu, D., Zhang, J., & Ma, J. (2019). The relationship between being envied and workplace ostracism: The moderating role of neuroticism and the need to belong. Personality and Individual Differences, 147, 223-228.

Mackey, J.D., McAllister, C.P., Ellen B.P 3rd., & Carson, J.E. (2021). A metanalysis of interpersonal and organizational workplace deviance research. Journal of Management, 47(3), 597-622.

Massoudi, A.H. (2022). Reviving performance by adopting chameleon style of leadership. Journal of Management and Business Education, 5(1), 1-19.

Massoudi, A.H., & Birdawod, H.Q. (2023). Applying knowledge management processes to improve institutional performance. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(1), 1-10.

Menon, T., & Thompson, L. (2010). Envy at work. Harvard Business Review, 88(4), 74-79.

Ministry, T.B.T., Halseth, J.A., & Webster, N. (2018). Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary and Bible: New Heart English Bible. United States: TruthBeTold Ministry.

Mishra, P. (2009). Green-eyed monsters in the workplace: Antecedents and consequences of envy. In: Academy of Management Proceedings. Vol. 2009. Briarcliff Manor: Academy of Management. p1-6.

Nandedkar, A., & Midha, V. (2014). An international perspective concerning impact of supervisor-subordinate relationship on envy, knowledge sharing, and relational conflict among employees. Journal of International Interdisciplinary Business Research, 1, 89-104.

Navarro-Carrillo, G., Beltrán-Morillas, A.M., Valor-Segura, I., & Expósito, F. (2018). The pernicious effects of malicious versus benign envy: Perceived injustice, emotional hostility and counterproductive behaviors in the workplace. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 21, E41.

Organ, D.W., Podsakoff, P.M., & MacKensie, S.B. (2006). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature, Antecedents, and Consequences. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.

Patient, D., Lawrence, T.B., & Maitlis, S. (2003). Understanding workplace envy through narrative fiction. Organization Studies, 24, 1015-1044.

Pletzer, J.L., Oostrom, J.K., Bentvelzen, M., & De Vries, R.E. (2020). Comparing domain-and facet-level relations of the HEXACO personality model with workplace deviance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 152, 109539.

Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T. (2017). Organizational Behaviour. 2nd ed. United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.

Robinson, S.L., & Bennett, R.J. (1995). A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 555-572.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. 7th ed. United States: John Wiley and Sons.

Sharma, S. (2000). Managerial interpretations and organizational context as predictors of corporate choice of environmental strategy. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 681-697.

Shu, C.Y., & Lazatkhan, J. (2017). Effect of leader-member exchange on employee envy and work behavior moderated by self-esteem and neuroticism. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizacione, 33(1), 69-81.

Sim, J., Saunders, B., Waterfield, J., & Kingstone, T. (2018). Can sample size in qualitative research be determined a priori? International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 21(5), 619-634.

Smith, R.H., & Kim, S.H. (2007). Comprehending envy. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 46-64.

Spector, P.E., Bauer, J.A., & Fox, S. (2010). Measurement artifacts in the assessment of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: do we know what we think we know? The Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4), 781-790.

Thompson, G., Glaso, L., & Martinsen, O.L. (2015). The relationships between envy and attitudinal and behavioral outcomes at work. Scandinavian Journal of Organizational Psychology, 7(1), 5-18.

Vecchio, R.P. (1995). It’s not easy being green: Jealousy and envy in the workplace. In: Ferris, E.G.R., (ed.) Research in Personal and Human Resources Management. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Williams, L.J., & Anderson, S.E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601-617.

Yen, C.H., & Teng, H.Y. (2013). The effect of centralization on organizational citizenship behavior and deviant workplace behavior in the hospitality industry. Tourism Management, 36, 401-410.

Zheng, Y., Huang, X., Graham, L., Redman, T., & Hu, S. (2020). Deterrence effects: The role of authoritarian leadership in controlling employee workplace deviance. Management and Organization Review, 16(2), 377-404.

How to Cite
Issa, M., & Al-Salami, Q. (2023). The Role of Workplace Enviousness on Individual Productivity and Organizational Behavior. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(1), 107-114.