Survey on Wireless Indoor Positioning Systems

Keywords: Indoor localization, Indoor positioning, Received signal strength indicator, Wi-Fi


Indoor positioning has finally testified a rise in interest, thanks to the big selection of services it is provided, and ubiquitous connectivity. There are currently many systems that can locate a person, be it wireless or by mobile phone and the most common systems in outdoor environments is the GPS, the most common in indoor environments is Wi-Fi positioning technique positioning. The improvement of positioning systems in indoor environments is desirable in many areas as it provides important facilities and services, such as airports, universities, factories, hospitals, and shopping malls. This paper provides an overview of the existing methods based on wireless indoor positioning technique. We focus in this survey on the strengths of these systems mentioned in the literature discordant with the present surveys; we also assess to additionally measure various systems from the scene of energy efficiency, price, and following accuracy instead of comparing the technologies, we also to additionally discuss residual challenges to correct indoor positioning.


Download data is not yet available.


A. Zelenkauskaite, N. Bessis, S. Sotiriadis and E. Asimakopoulou. “Interconnectedness of Complex Systems of Internet of Things Throughsocial Network Analysis for Disaster Management”. In Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems, IEEE, 2012, pp. 503-508.

N. Marques, F. Meneses and A. Moreira. “Combining Similarity Functions and Majority Rules for Multi-building, Multi-floor, WiFi Positioning”. International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, IEEE, 13-15th Nov 2012.

Y. Kim, H. Shin and H. Cha. “Smartphone-based Wi-Fi Pedestrian-Tracking System Tolerating the RSS Variance Problem”. International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, IEEE, 19-23 Mar 2012.

L. Chen, B. Li, K. Zhao, C. Rizos and Z. Zheng. “An improved algorithm to generate a Wi-Fi fingerprint database for indoor positioning”. Sensors, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1186-1194, 2013.

Y. Shu, C. Bo, G. Shen, C. Zhao, L. Li and F. Zhao. “Magicol: Indoor localization using pervasivemagnetic field and opportunistic WiFi sensing”. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 33, pp. 1443-1457, 2015.

P. Davidson and R. Piche. “A survey of selected indoor positioning methods for smartphones”. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 19, pp. 1347-1370, 2016.

M. Nowicki and J. Wietrzykowski. “Low-effort Place Recognition with WiFi fingerprints Using Deep Learning”. Switzerland: Springer, 2017.

Y. E. Dari and S. Pranowo. “CAPTURE: A mobile based indoor positioning system using wireless indoor positioning system”. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 61, 2018.

F. Zafari, A. Gkelias and K. K. Leung. “A Survey of Indoor Localization Systems And technologies”. IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium IV, 2018.

M. Abbas, H. Rizk, M. Elhamshary and M. Torki. “WiDeep: WiFibased Accurate and Robust Indoor Localization System using Deep Learning”. Research Gate, Conference Paper, 2018.

Z. Yang, Z. Zhou and Y. Liu. “From RSSI to CSI: Indoor localization via channel response”. Computing Surveys, vol. 46, no. 2, p. 25, 2013.

A. M. Ladd, K. E. Bekris, A. Rudys, L. E. Kavraki and D. S. Wallach. “Robotics-based location sensing using wireless ether net”. Wireless Networks, vol. 11, pp. 189-204, 2005.

S. Nadler, V. Soroka, O. Fuchs, R. Korenshtein and E. Sonsino. “Presence Zones for Contextual Location Based Services”. In Innovations in Clouds, Internet and Networks, 2008.

J. Xiao, K. Wu, Y. Yi, L. Wang and L. M. Ni. “Pilot: Passive device free indoor localization using channel state information”. In DISTRIBUTED Computing Systems, 3rd International Conference on, IEEE, 2013, pp. 236-245.

M. Youssef and A. Agrawala. “The Horus WLAN Location Determination System”. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, 2005, pp. 205-218.

F. Zafari, I. Papapanagiotou and K. Christidis. “Micro location for internet-of-things-equipped smart buildings”. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 3, pp. 96-112, 2016.

H. Liu, H. Darabi, P. Banerjee and J. Liu. “Survey of wireless indoor positioning techniques and systems.” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part C: Applications and Reviews, vol. 37, no. 6, 2007.

M. Altini, D. Brunelli, E. Farella and L. Benini. “Bluetooth Indoor Localization with Multiple Neural Networks”. 5th IEEE International Symposium, 2010, pp. 295-300.

S. Kumar, S. Gil, D. Katabi and D. Rus. “Accurate Indoor Localization with Zero Start-up Cost”. In Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2014.

M. Scherhaufl, M. Pichler, D. Muller, A. Ziroff and A. Stelzer. “Phaseof-arrival-based localization of passive UHF RFID Tags”. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 2013, pp. 1-3.

T. Adame, A. Bel, B. Bellalta, J. Barcelo and M. Oliver. “IEEE 802.11 ah: The Wifi approach for M2M communications”. IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 21, pp. 144-152, 2014.

D. Vasisht, S. Kumar and D. Katabi. “Decimeter-level Localization with a Single Wifi Access Point”. In 13th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2016, pp. 165-178

M. Kotaru, K. Joshi, D. Bharadia and S. Katti. “Spotfi: Decimeter level localization using wifi”. SIGCOMM Computer Communication, vol. 45, pp. 269-282, 2015.

M. K. Hoang and R. Haeb-Umbach. “Parameter Estimation and Classification of Censored Gaussian Data with Application to Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning”. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2013.

F. Zafari. “Ibeacon Based Proximity and Indoor Localization System”. Master’s Thesis, Purdue University, USA, 2016.

B. G. Lee and S. Choi. “Broadband Wireless Access and Local Networks: Mobile WiMAX and Wi-Fi”. USA: Artech House Publisher, 2008.

iBeacon. Available from: [Last accessed on 2017 Dec 11].

S. Holm. “Hybrid Ultrasound-RFID Indoor Positioning: Combining the Best of Both Worlds”. IEEE International Conference, 2009, pp. 155-162.

Decawave. “Real Time-Location: An Introduction”. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Nov 01].

F. Ijaz, H. K. Yang, A. W. Ahmad and C. Lee. “Indoor Positioning: A Review of Indoor Ultrasonic Positioning Systems”. 15th International Conference on, IEEE, 2013, pp. 1146-1150.

N. B. Priyantha, A. Chakraborty and H. Balakrishnan. “The Cricket Location-support System”. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2000, pp. 32-43.

P. Babu. “10 Airports Using Beacons to Take Passenger Experience to the Next Level”. Available from: [Last accessed on 2016 Oct 08].

Intel. “Wireless LAN Standards Study”. Available from: [Last accessed 2016 Nov 02].

M. Shaik. “Ultra Wide-Band vs. Wi-Fi A Study and Comparisonof the two Technologies”. Available from: http://www.academia. edu/4810093/Ultra. [Last accessed on 2016 Nov 03].

How to Cite
Ali W, Kareem A, Jasim M. Survey on Wireless Indoor Positioning Systems. cuesj [Internet]. 20Aug.2019 [cited 2Dec.2022];3(2):42-7. Available from:
Research Article