Black Public Relations and its Negative Implementation

International Samples

  • Omar H. Fahmi Department of Media, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Public Relation, Political Public Relations, Black Public Relations


Public relations ware based on the exchange of opinions and analysis a public opinion through two directions, The first is the communication issued by the institution or the individual to the society, which is based on informing them about the institution or the individual of the different products in a sincere and honest manner and through the means of communication, the second direction is when public relations transfer the views of society about the institution or individuals and their activities in a scientific manner and lead to the achievement of corrective action for the course of the work of the institution or individual. But there is another direction in public relations we can call it third direction or call it black or negative public relations and It is the process of deliberately spreading negative information about someone or about an issue beyond the description of the true public picture of the person or issue On the management of reputation, this trend has a number of techniques used and has the pros and cons we will address in this research


Download data is not yet available.


Ansolabehere, S. &. (1995). Going negative: How campaign advertising shrinks and polarizes the electorate. New York: The Free Press.

Atwater, L. (2008). Analysis of a "Willie Horton" ad from the 1988 campaign. new yprk: InterPositive Media.

BBC. (2008, October 1). bbc News. Retrieved from

Campaign, H. C. (Director). (2008). Hillary Clinton Ad - 3 AM White House Ringing Phone [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from

Carlin, B. (2006). Saatchis aren't working for the Tories. London: Telegraph. Retrieved, 62.

Carlin, B. (2012). Saatchis aren't working for the Tories. London: Telegraph. Retrieved, 90.

Connelly, M. (2014). Push Polls, Defined. the new york times , 20.

Csanady, A. (2014, 9 14). Ten of the most vicious, and game-changing, attack ads in Canadian political history. Retrieved from

Enli, S. G., & Skogerbø, E. (2015). Personalized campaigns in party-centred politics. Twitter and Facebook as Arenas for Political Communication , p. 16. doi:10.1080/1369118x.2013.782330.

Garramone, G. M. (2009). Effects of Negative Political Advertising on the Political Process. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media,. Published online. doi:10.1080/08838159009386744

Grunig, J. E., & Hunt, T. (1984). Managing Public Relations. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Heritage, N. Z. (2012). "Dancing Cossacks political TV ad – NewZealand History Online". . Retrieved 20 July 2012. new zialand: New Zealand Ministry of Culture and Heritage.

James G. Hutton*, M. B. (2001). Reputation Management: The New Face of Corporate Public Relations? Public Relations Review, 27.

Kamvar, S. D., & Schlosser, M. T.-M. (2015). Proceedings of the 12th international conference on World Wide Web (p. 102). milano ,italy: The EigenTrust Algorithm for Reputation Management in P2P Networks.

Kelly, M. (1992). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; Those Chicken Georges And What They Mean. The New York Times, 120.

Kim Fridkin, P. K. (2004). Do negative messages work? The impact of negativity on citizens' evaluations of candidates. American Politics Research, 570. doi:10.1177/1532673X03260834.

KING, J. (2013, 11 17). Dukakis and the Tank. (P. magazine, Ed.) politico magazine, 70. Retrieved from

MALKIN, R. C. (2012). A Race Recast by YouTube and Twitter. new yourk times, 70.

Mills, E. (2012). Study: eBay sellers gaming the reputation system? CNET., 30.

PAC, N. S. (Director). (1988). Willie Horton AD [Motion Picture].

Randolph, E. (2010). The Political Legacy of Baaad Boy Atwater. The New York Times, 20.

Rubel, G. F. (2007). Everyday Public Relations for Lawyers. Doylestown, PA: Doylestown ISBN 978-0-9801719-0-7.

Schwartz, T. (Director). (1964). Daisy [Motion Picture]. USA. Retrieved from

Shiraev, L. S. (2002). The Rational Attacker in Russia? Negative Campaigning in Russian Presidential Elections. The Journal of Politics, 45-62.

Strömbäck, J. &. (2011). Political Public Relations. Principles and Applications. New York: Routledge.

Tozzi, J. (2012). Do Reputation Management Services Work? Bloomberg Businessweek, 42.

How to Cite
Fahmi, O. (2019). Black Public Relations and its Negative Implementation. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(2), 1-7.