Roles and Routines in Investigative Journalism in Collaborative Environments

  • Dashti M. Abdullah Department of Media, College of Arts and Letters, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Keywords: Journalistic Roles, News Ecology, Collaboration, Investigative Journalism


 A global network of journalistic networks has transformed investigative journalism over the past two decades, adding layers of collaboration to what was previously an individual pursuit. A recent case of collaborative investigative reporting at its best was a worldwide effort to reveal breaches of tax haven information, through the Panama Papers (2016). As a result of these remarkable accomplishments, study on multi countries partnership is rising. However, it's still unclear how this combining of facilities, connections and time has influenced day-to-day operation. Newsrooms in developing and heritage newsrooms are navigating their patterns and duties while creating new investigative journalistic practices. The Guardian, a mainstream media firm that has worked at both the domestic and international levels, and Bureau Local, a society/neighborhood journalism co-op, are all given as examples. These actors use a language of justification to explain the differences between the old and the new. While "new" ideas become more common with time, notions like cooperation are also becoming element of decision making process, and information and information development take place within the conventional context of reporting.


Download data is not yet available.


Alfter, B. (2019). Cross-Border Collaborative Journalism: A Step-By-Step Guide. London: Routledge.

Ananny, M., & Crawford, K. (2014). A liminal press: Situating news app designers within a field of networked news production. Digital Journalism, 3(2), 192-208.

Aucoin, J. (2005). The Evolution of American Investigative Journalism. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.

Baack, S. (2016). What Big Data Leaks Tell us About the Future of Journalism and Its Past, Internet Policy Review. Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 11].

Baack, S. (2018). Practically engaged. Digital Journalism, 6(6), 673-692.

Baggi, G. (2011). Nonprofit Investigative Journalism in Europe: Motives, Organizations and Practices (Unpublished Masters Dissertation). Germany, Hamburg: University of Hamburg.

Belair-Gagnon, V., & Holton, A. E. (2018). Boundary work, interloper media, and analytics in newsrooms. Digital Journalism, 6(4), 492-508.

Berglez, P., & Gearing, A. (2018). The panama and paradise papers: The rise of a global fourth estate. International Journal of Communication, 12, 4573-4592.

Bunce, M., Wright, K., & Scott, M. (2018). Our newsroom in the cloud: Slack, virtual newsrooms and journalistic practice. New Media and Society, 20(9), 3381-3399.

Carson, A., & Farhall, K. (2018). Understanding collaborative investigative journalism in a “post-truth” age. Journalism Studies, 19(13), 1899-1911.

Ettema, J., & Glasser, T. (1987). On the epistemology of investigative journalism. In: Gurevitch, M., & Levy, M. R., (Eds.), Mass Communication Yearbook. London: Sage.

Feldstein, M. (2006). A muckraking model: Investigative reporting cycles in American history. International Journal of Press/Politics, 11(2), 105-120.

Gans, H. J. (2004). Deciding What’s News: A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Time. Evanston, IL: Medill School of Journalism, in Association with Northwestern University Press.

Gayle, D., Boutaud, C., & Cantwell-Corn, A. (2017). One in Five Stopped by Immigration Enforcement is a UK Citizen, Figures Show, The Guardian. Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 11].

Gearing, A. (2016). Global Investigative Journalism in the Network Society (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Queensland, Australia: Queensland University of Technology.

Graves, L., & Shabbir, N. (2019). Gauging the Global Impacts of the “Panama Papers” Three Years Later. Oxford: The Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

Gynnild, A. (2013). Journalism innovation leads to innovation journalism: The impact of computational exploration on changing mindset. Journalism, 15(6), 713-730.

Heft, A., Alfter, B., & Pfetsch, B. (2017). Transnational journalism networks as drivers of Europeanisation. Journalism, 18(5), 1183-1202.

Helland, K. (1993). Public Service and Commercial News: Contexts of Production, Genre Conventions and Textual Claims in Television (Report 18). Bergen: University of Bergen.

Houston, B. (2009). The Investigative Reporter’s Handbook: A Guide to Documents, Databases and Techniques. 5th ed. Champaign, IL, and Boston, MA: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Howells, R. (2015). Journey to the Center of a News Black Hole: Examining the Democratic Deficit in a Town With no Newspaper (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom: Cardiff University.

Ilan, J. (2012). Picturing the World’s News: News Photography, Cultural Production, Thomas Reuters and the International Process of News Making (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). London, United Kingdom: Westminster University.

Jenkins, J., & Graves, L. (2019). Case Studies in Collaborative Local Journalism. Oxford: Reuters Institute or the Study of Journalism. Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 11].

Johansen, A. (1981). Feltarbeid i sosialantropologien: Fra observasjoner til data [Fieldwork in anthropology: From observation to data]. Antropolognytt, 3(2), 5-27.

Konieczna, M. (2018). Journalism Without Profit: Making News When the Market Fails. New York: Oxford University Press.

Konow Lund, M., Gearing, A., & Berglez, P. (2019). Transnational Cooperation in Journalism. Oxford, US: Oxford Research Encyclopedias. Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 11].

Larsen, A. G. (2017). Investigative reporting in the networked media environment. Journalism Practice, 11(10), 1231-1245.

Lewis, C. (2018). Tear down these walls: Innovations in collaborative accountability research and reporting. In: Sambrook, R., (Ed.), Global Teamwork: The Rise of Collaboration in Investigative Journalism. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, p. 5-25.

Lewis, S. C., & Usher, N. (2014). Code, collaboration, and the future of journalism. Digital Journalism, 2(3), 383-393.

Protess, D. L., Cook, F. L., Doppelt, J. C., Ettema, J. S., Gordon, M. T., & Leff, D. L. (1991). The Journalism of Outrage: Investigative Reporting and Agenda Building in America. New York: Guilford Press.

Ryfe, D. (2011). Broader and deeper: A study of newsroom culture in a time of change. In: Berkowitz, D. A., (Ed.), Cultural Meanings of News: A Text Reader. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, p. 165-177.

Ryfe, D. (2017). News routines, role performance, and change in journalism. In Mellado, C., Hellmueller, L., & Donsbach, W., (Eds.), Journalistic Role Performance: Concepts, Contexts, and Methods. London: Routledge.

Sambrook, R. (2018). Global Teamwork: The Rise of Collaboration in Investigative Journalism. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

Schlesinger, P. (1978). Putting “Reality” Together: BBC News. London: Methuen.

Schudson, M. (1992). Watergate in American Memory: How We Remember, Forget, and Reconstruct the Past. New York: Basic Books.

Shoemaker, P. J., & Reese, S. (1996). Mediating the Message: Theories of Influences on Mass Media Content. White Plains, New York: Longman.

Stetka, V., & Örnebring, H. (2013). Investigative journalism in central and eastern Europe: Autonomy, business models, and democratic roles. International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(4), 413-435.

Stonbely, S. (2017). Comparing Models of Collaborative Journalism. Montclair, New York: Center of Cooperative Media, Montclair State University.

Tuchman, G. (1978). Making News: A Study in the Construction of Reality. New York: Free Press.

Wadel, C. (1991). Feltarbeid I Egen Kultur [Fieldwork in Own Culture]. Flekkefjord: SEEK.

Westlund, O., & Ekström, M. (2019). News organizations and routines. In: Wahl-Jorgensen, K., & Hanitzsch, T., (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism Studies. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, p. 73-89.

Yin, R. K. (2003). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

How to Cite
Abdullah, D. (2022). Roles and Routines in Investigative Journalism in Collaborative Environments. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(1), 75-82.