The Full Factorial Design Approach to Determine the Attitude of University Lecturers towards e-Learning and Online Teaching due to the COVID-19 Pandemic
The purpose of this study was to determine faculty members' attitudes toward online learning in Kurdistan region universities. The study examined the biographic and personal characteristics of the lecturer towards e-learning. The data was collected among faculty members at Cihan University-Sulaimaniya, and to analyze the data, a full factorial design with five main factors at two levels and no central points was applied for this specific purpose. The study's findings indicated that there was no significant relationship between gender and lecturer attitude towards e-learning. In comparison to teachers with an MSc degree, those with a PhD have a more negative attitude toward e-learning. Furthermore, full-time faculty members have a greater positive effect on teachers' attitudes than part-time lecturers. Likewise, the results indicate that lecturers who earned their most recent education degrees outside of Iraq have a more favorable attitude. Similarly, lecturers in the sciences are more favorable to e-learning than those in the arts and social sciences. In addition, the findings demonstrated that the interaction factors (Gender) and (Education Degree) have a negative effect on lecturers' attitudes when they are combined. Besides that, the interaction of factors (Country of Last Education Degree) and (Faculty Member Types) improves attitudes toward e-learning. Based on the results, it is suggested that academic staff receive e-learning training to deepen their knowledge and understanding of such a modern teaching system. There is also a need to enhance factors related to positive attitudes towards e-learning among university lecturers. The findings of this study are necessarily significant to both teachers and educational organizations in Kurdistan Region universities.
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