The Essential Pheromonal Elements of the Mouse Preputial Gland in Castrated Treated Mice

Keywords: Testosterone, pheromones, histology, preputial, castration


The present study investigated the 1effects of both castration and manipulation of castrated1 subjects with 0.1 ml of 50µg/kg/day of testosterone at 3 weeks of age for 6 weeks on the pheromonal and histological structure of male mice preputial gland.   The preputial gland results from the control intact group showed that six essential pheromonal compounds are present, whereas the glandular structure revealed well-developed acini with basement membrane and connective tissue around most of them. These findings also showed that castration has deleterious effects on the essential pheromonal compounds which are reduced to two compounds only (the α.-Farnesene and 1- Tetradecanol) as well as the histological sections from such subject appeared many atrophied vacuolated acini. On the other hand, treatment of castrated animals with such dose of testosterone did not show any marked effects on the essential pheromonal compounds but it was able to restore the activities of acinar development as showed by many hypertrophied alveoli.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Merza H. Homady, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Science, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Merza H. Homady is a Professor at the Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Science, Cihan University. He got the B.Sc. degree in Biology, the M.Sc. degree in Histology and the Ph.D. degree in Histophysiology and Anatomy. His research interests are in Histophysiology, Pathology, Fertility and Sterility. Dr. Merza is a member of American ISRA Society [International Society for Research on Aggression], American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Ali A. Majeed, Department of Pathological Analyses, Faculty of Sciences, Kufa University, Iraq.

Ali Adil Majeed is a Lecturer (Full) with a M.Sc. degree in Functional Histology, and Ph.D. in Cell and Molecular Biology, teaching in the Department of Laboratory Investigations at University of Kufa. I have a B.Sc. degree in General Biology and M.Sc. degree in Functional Histology and and a Ph.D. degree in Cell and Molecular Biology. His research interest includes Genotoxicity, Cell Culture, Cancer Biology.

Maysoon T. Al-Haideri‎, ‎Department of Physiotherapy, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Maysoon T. Al-Haideri. is the  Vice President for Scientific Affairs at Cihan University-Erbil. She has a B.Sc. degree in Pharmacy, M.Sc. degree, M.Phil. Degree, and a Ph.D. degree in Pathology, Also  had a Postdoctoral research fellowship. She is a member of American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, American Heart Association, Syndicate of Iraqi Pharmacists; Syndicate of Kurdistan Pharmacists. Also, an editor member of Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal. Her research interest includes Cardiovascular Diseases, Lipids and Immunology.

Mustafa T. Younis‎, ‎Department of General Biology, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Mustafa Thanoon Younis is an Assistant Lecturer (Full) with a M.Sc. degree in Molecular Biology, teaching in the Department of General Biology at Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, F.R. Iraq. He has a B.Sc. degree in General Biology and M.Sc. degree in Molecular Biology. He is a member of Biology Syndicate. His research interest includes Molecular Microbiology, Microbiology, Medical Microbiology.


K. Fabianová, M. Martončíková, D. Fabian, J. Blaško and E. Račeková. Diverse effect of different odor stimuli on behavior and fos protein production in the olfactory system neurogenic region of adult rats. Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 265, pp. 38-48, 2014.

M. H. Homady, L. ALquraishi, M. H. Ubeid and A. S. M. Juma. Ultra structural studies of mouse liver in castrated subjects treated with grape juice. International Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Reviews, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-5, 2021.

S. Dey, P. Chamero, J. K. Pru, M. S. Chien, X. Ibarra-Soria, K. R, S. D. W. Logan, H. Matsunami, J. J. Peluso and L. Stowers. Cyclic regulation of sensory perception by a female hormone alters behavior. Cell, vol. 161, no. 6, pp. 1334-1344, 2015.

P. R. Griffiths and P. A. Brennan. Roles for learning in mammalian chemosensory responses. Hormones and Behavior, vol. 68, pp. 91-102, 2015.

Y. C. Wei, S. R. Wang, Z. L. Jiao, W. Zhang, J. K. Lin, X. Y. Li, S. S. Li, X. Zhang and X. H. Xu. Medial preoptic area in mice is capable of mediating sexually dimorphic behaviors regardless of gender. Nature Communications, vol. 9, pp. 1-15, 2018.

R. Mozūraitis, V. Karaliusa, V. Būda and A. K. Borg-Karlson. Inter-and intraspecific activities of compounds derived from sex pheromone glands of currant borer, Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerck) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, vol. 61, no. 3-4, pp. 278-284, 2006.

Y. Kiyokawa, T. Kikusui, Y. Takeuchi and Y. Mori. Alarm pheromones with different functions are released from different regions of the body surface of male rats. Chemical Senses, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 35-40, 2004.

A. Majeed and M. Homady. Phermonal components of intact male mice preputial gland in relation to flutamide effects. Jacobs Journal of Anatomy, vol. 3, pp. 1-9, 2016.

M. H. Homady. The influences of some medicinal plant extracts on the aggressivity and fertility of male mice. Philippine Journal of Science, vol. 130, pp. 119-126, 2001.

M. H. Homady, L. Alquraishi, S. S. Tanya and A. S. M. Juma. The intra gastric effects of grape juice on histological structure of liver tissue in castrated treated mice. Journal of Human Anatomy, vol. 4, pp. 1-6, 2020.

L. Conchou, P. Lucas, C. Meslin, M. Proffit, M. Staudt and M. Renou. Insect odorscapes: From plant volatiles to natural olfactory scenes. Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 10, p. 972, 2019.

C. Y. Lin, C. C. Hsu, M. T. Lin and S. H. Chen. Flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, improves heatstroke outcomes in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 688, pp. 62-67, 2012.

M. H. Homady, L. ALquraishi and A. S. M. Juma. Ultrastructural studies of mouse liver in castrated subjects treated with grape juice. International Journal of Clinical Case Reports and Reviews, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-6, 2021.

M. Novotny. Pheromones, binding proteins and receptor responses in rodents. Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 31, no. Pt 1, pp. 117-122, 2003.

L. Conchou, P. Lucas, N. Deisig, E. Demondion and M. Renou. effects of multi-component backgrounds of volatile plant compounds on moth pheromone perception. Insects, vol. 12, pp. 409, 2021.

P. F. Brain. Hormones and Aggression. Vol. 2. California, Eden Press, 1979.

J. X. Zhang, X. P. Rao, L. Sun, C. H. Zhao and X. W. Qin. Putative chemical signals about sex, individuality, and genetic background in the preputial gland and urine of the house mouse (Mus musculus). Chemical Senses, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 293-303, 2007.

N. Y. Al-Harbi, M. A. Hadi and F. A. Abbas. Effect of Flax Seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) extract in male reproductive system of albino rat treated with cyproterone acetate. Journal of Global Pharma Technology, vol. 9, pp. 221-231, 2017.

M. H. Homady and A. Majeed. Histochemical and pheromonal components of mouse preputial gland in relation to F. hormonis treatment. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 4137-4141, 2017.

L. Stowers and T. F. Martinet. What is a pheromone? Mammalian pheromones reconsidered. Neuron, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 699-702, 2005.

R. Tirindelli, M. Dibattista, S. Pifferi and A. Menini. From pheromones to behavior. Physiological Reviews, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 921-956, 2009.

H. Breer, J. Fleischer and J. Strotmann. The sense of smell: Multiple olfactory subsystems. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 63, pp. 1465-1475, 2006.

D. J. Jun, K. Y. Na, W. Kim, D. Kwak, E. J. Kwon, J. H. Yoon, K. Yea, H. Lee, J. Kim, P. G. Suh, S. H. Ryu and K. T. Kim. Melanocortins induce interleukin 6 gene expression and secretion through melanocortin receptors 2 and 5 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 44, no. 4, p. 225-236, 2010.

S. Ramachandrappa, R. J. Gorrigan, A. J. L. Clark and L. Chan. The melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins. Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 4, pp. 9, 2013.

W. Chen, M. A. Kelly, X. Opitz-Araya, R. E. Thomas, M. J. Low and R. D. Cone. Exocrine gland dysfunction in MC5-R-deficient mice: Evidence for coordinated regulation of exocrine gland function by melanocortin peptides. Cell, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 789-798, 1997.

C. Morgan and R. D. Cone. Melanocortin-5 receptor deficiency in mice blocks a novel pathway influencing pheromone-induced aggression. Behavior Genetics, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 291-300, 2006.

C. Morgan, R. E. Thomas, W. Ma, M. V. Novotny and R. D. Cone. Melanocortin-5 receptor deficiency reduces a pheromonal signal for aggression in male mice. Chemical Senses, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 111-115, 2004.

M. E. Villar, P. Marchal, H. Viola and M. Giurfa. Redefining singletrial memories in the honeybee. Cell Reports, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 2603-2613.e3, 2020.

M. H. Hamady. The preputial gland and its role in pheromone production in relation to some endocrine factors. Journal of Stem Cell Biology and Transplantation, vol. 1, p. 4, 2017.

J. X. Zhang, Y. J. Liu, J. H. Zhang and L. Sun. Dual role of preputial gland secretion and its major components in sex recognition of mice. Physiology and Behavior, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 388-394, 2008.

M. H. Homady. Changes in the testicular and preputial structures of mice related to influences of Ferula hermonis extract. Science, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 108-112, 2001.

G. Herrada and C. Dulac. A novel family of putative pheromone receptors in mammals with a topographically organized and sexually dimorphic distribution. Cell, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 763-773, 1997.

M. Arteaga-Silva, M. Rodríguez-Dorantes, S. Baig and J. Morales- Montor. Effects of castration and hormone replacement on male sexual behavior and pattern of expression in the brain of sexsteroid receptors in BALB/c AnN mice. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. 607-615, 2007.

M. H. Homady, T. S. Salih, M. M. Al-Jubori and M. D. Younus. Immunohistochemical and molecular studies of p53 and KRAS protein and their relations to colorectal carcinoma. Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 28-33, 2021.

S. Achiraman, D. S. Ganesh, S. Kannan, S. Kamalakkannan, N. Nirmala and G. Archunan. Response of male mice to odours of female mice in different stages of oestrous cycle: Self-grooming behaviour and the effect of castration. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 30-35, 2014.

How to Cite
Homady M, Majeed A, Al-Haideri‎M, Younis‎M. The Essential Pheromonal Elements of the Mouse Preputial Gland in Castrated Treated Mice. cuesj [Internet]. 20Aug.2022 [cited 22Feb.2024];6(2):36-0. Available from:
Research Article