Immunohistochemical and Molecular Studies of p53 and KRAS Protein and Their Relations to Colorectal Carcinoma

  • Merza H. Homady Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Science, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region-Iraq
  • Tanya S. Salih Department of General Biology, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Mariamm M. Al-Jubori College of Medicine, Babylon University, Iraq
  • Mustafa D. Younus Department of General Biology, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Kirsten rat sarcoma virus, carcinoma, stage, colorectal, histology


The study inc1uded 50 tissue blocks embedded in paraffin wax (16 females and 34 males), obtained from a patients group with (CRC) colorectal cancer , as well as 35 Tissue blocks that were embedded in paraffin wax from norma1 co1on (ulcerative co1itis) as controls. A relatively few oncogenes and most prominently tumor-suppressing genes, Kirastien rat sarcoma virus (KRAS), and P53 genes have been mutated into a significant part of CRCs, and a broad collection of mutated genes has been defined in CRC subsets. Current findings showed very significant differences between patients and control subjects in the p53 positive rate (P<0.001). TP53 Pro/Pro genotype positivity was higher in the contro1 group I than in the patient group I and this was a significant difference (Pi<0.001) with an odd ratio of less than one. The genotype Pro/Pro was considered to be protective against colorectal carcinoma preventively fractured 0.767. The positive rate of p53 Arg/Arg genotype in patients was more frequent and statistically significant (P <0.01), because the odd ratio was more than one. The genotype Arg/Arg would be considered a colorectal carcinoma risk factor. We conclude that p53 over expression is used as an indicator of p53 mutation (as identified by immuno-historic chemistry) and KRAS protein expression was negatively impaired for all the patients in the current study.


Download data is not yet available.


E. R. Fearon and B. Vogelstein. A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis. Cell vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 759-767, 1990.

A. Russo, S. Rizzo, G. Bronte, N. Silvestris, G. Colucci, N. Gebbia, V. Bazan and F. Fulfaro. The long and winding road to useful predictive factors for anti-EGFR therapy in metastatic colorectal carcinoma: the KRAS/BRAF pathway. Oncology, vol. 77, no. Suppl 1, pp. 57-68, 2009.

F. Coppedè, A. Lopomo, R. Spisni and L. Migliore. Genetic and epigenetic biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 4, p. 943, 2014.

B. Leggett and V. Whitehall. Role of the serrated pathway in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 2088-2100, 2010.

W. Jin, M. Q. Gao, Z. W. Lin and D. X. Yang. Multiple biomarkers of colorectal tumor in a differentia1 diagnosis model: A quantitative study. World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 439-442, 2004.

S. D. Markowitz and M. M. Bertagnolli. Molecular basis of colorectal cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 25, pp. 2449-2460, 2009.

B. Iacopetta. TP53 mutation in colorectal cancer. Human Mutation, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 271-276, 2003.

Y. Imamura, T. Morikawa, X. Liao, P. Lochhead, A. Kuchiba, M. Yamauchi, Z. R. Qian, R. Nishihara, J. A. Meyerhardt, K. M. Haigis, C. S. Fuchs and S. Ogino. Specific mutations in KRAS codons 12 and 13, and patient prognosis in 1075 BRAF wild-type colorectal cancers. Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 4753-4763, 2012.

M. B. Al-Jubori. Immunohisto Chemical and Molecular Study of Colorectal Cancer Patients. Ph.D. Thesis, College of Science, Kufa University, Iraq, 2015.

P. Uribe, L. Andrade and S. Gonzalez. Lack of association between BRAF mutation and MAPK ERK activation in melanocytic nevi. Homady, et al.: Immunohistochemical and Molecular Studies of p53 and KRAS Protein

Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 161-166, 2006.

L. M. McGlynn, T. Kirkegaard, J. Edwards, S. Tovey, D. Cameron, C. Twelves, J. M. S. Bartlett and T. G. Cooke. Ras/Raf-1/MAPK pathway mediates response to tamoxifen but not chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 4, 1487-1495, pp. 2009.

E. Ioachim, M. C. Michael, M. Salmas, K. Damala, E. Tsanou, M. M. Michael, V. Malamou-Mitsi and N. E. Stavropoulos. Thrombospondin-1 expression in urothelial carcinoma: Prognostic significance and association with p53 alterations, tumour angiogenesis and extracellular matrix components. BMC Cancer, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2006.

P. F. Rambau, M. Odida and H. Wabinga. p53 expression in colorectal carcinoma in relation to histopathological features in Ugandan patients. African Health Sciences, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 234-238, pp. 2008.

H. L. de Menezes, M. J. Jucá, E. G. A. de Gomes, B. L. Nunes, H. O. Costa and D. Matos. Analysis of the immunohistochemical expressions of p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 in colorectal adenocarcinoma and their correlations with the prognostic factors. Arquivos de Gastroenterologia, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 141-147, 2010.

S. Strano, S. Dell’Orso, S. Di Agostino, G. Fontemaggi, A. Sacchi and G. Blandino. Mutant p53: An oncogenic transcription factor. Oncogene, vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 2212-2219, 2007.

N. Y. Asaad, M. A. Kandil and N. M. Mokhtar. Prognostic value of Cyclin D1 and p53 protein in colorectal carcinoma. Therapy, vol. 42, p. 48, 2000.

A. Malik, R. N. Mishra, B. Fanthome, R. Rao and S. R. Patrikar. Role of CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor, and p53 in neoangiogenesis as correlated with stage of disease in colorectal carcinoma. Medical Journal Armed Forces India, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 320-325, 2011.

N. Mr. Ghavam, T. M. Seylanian, E. Rezaei, K. Ghafarzadegan and H. Malekifard. Expression of p53 in colorectal carcinoma: correlation with clinicopathologic features. Vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 38-42, 2007.

A. Conlin, G. Smith, F. A. Carey, C. R. Wolf and R. J. C. Steele. The prognostic significance of K-ras, p53, and APC mutations in colorectal carcinoma. Gut, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 1283-1286, 2005.

C. V. Georgescu, A. Saftoiu, C. C. Georgescu, R. Ciurea and T. Ciurea. Correlations of proliferation markers, p53 expression and histological findings in colorectal carcinoma. Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 133, 2007.

A. Hegazy, S. A. Daoud, W. S. Ibrahim, K. El-Atrebi, M. Saker and N. Abdel-Wahab. Role of Ki-67, P53 and Bcl-2 in advanced colorectal carcinoma (histopathological and immunohistochemical study). Academic Journal of Cancer Research, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 168-172. 2014.

S. T. Onrat, E. Ellidokuz, A. Küpelioğlu and E. Durhan. Frequency of TP53 codon72 polymorphism in cases with colon cancer. Turkish Journal of Cancer, vol. 39, no. 1, p. 72, 2009.

M. N. Dastjerdi. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and P53 protein expression in colorectal cancer specimens in Isfahan. Acta Medica Iranica, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 71-77, 2011.

G. Smith, F. A. Carey, J. Beattie, M. J. V. Wilkie, T. J. Lightfoot, J. Coxhead, R. C. Garner, R. J. C. Steele and C. R. Wolf. Mutations in APC, Kirsten-ras, and p53-alternative genetic pathways to colorectal cancer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 99, no. 14, pp. 9433-9438, 2002.

S. M. Salama, I. A. A. Ibrahim, N. Shahzad, S. Al-Ghamdi, N. Ayoub, A. S. AlRashdi, M. A. Abdulla, N. Salehen and M. Bilgen. Hepatoprotectivity of panduratin A against liver damage: In vivo demonstration with a rat model of cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide. Apmis, vol. 126, no. 9, pp. 710-721, 2018.

E. Bagheri, K. Saremi, F. Hajiaghaalipour, F. L. Faraj, H. M. Ali, M. A. Abdulla, S. L. Khaing and N. Salehen. Synthesis of novel derivatives of quinazoline schiff base compound promotes epithelial wound healing. Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 1395-1404, 2018.

D. Calistri, C. Rengucci, I. Seymour, A. Lattuneddu, A. M. Polifemo, F. Monti, L. Saragoni and D. Amadori. Mutation analysis of p53, K‐ras, and BRAF genes in colorectal cancer progression. Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 204, no. 2, pp. 484-488, 2005

How to Cite
Homady M, Salih T, Al-Jubori M, Younus M. Immunohistochemical and Molecular Studies of p53 and KRAS Protein and Their Relations to Colorectal Carcinoma. cuesj [Internet]. 20Jun.2021 [cited 18Apr.2024];5(1):28-3. Available from:
Research Article