Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Poultry Feces

  • Essam A. Makky Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.
  • Raid D. Thanoon Department of Biology, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7584-963X
  • Yashab Kumar Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, poultry feces, vancomycin resistance

Abstract

Enterococci, especially Enterococcus faecalis and faecium, have emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen and represent a serious threat to patients with impaired host defenses. E. faecalis and faecium are part of the normal intestinal microbial flora of poultry and man under most conditions, they are considered as an opportunistic pathogen. In the current study, an investigation of Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry feces and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern was studied, due to the worldwide attachment with poultry by human being. Samples were collected from different sites of Allahabad, India, 80 samples collected screened for the presence of E. faecalis and E. faecium and identified based on cultural and biochemical characteristics. Thirty-five isolates were identified as E. faecalis (57.37%), while 26 were E. faecium (42.62%). The pathogens isolated were tested for their susceptibility toward 10 different commonly prescribed antibiotics. Most of the isolates showed resistance toward antibiotics under study. E. faecalis strain suggested a higher percentage of possibility of infection estimated by 15% in comparison with E. faecium as it was found to be less in a screening. The high resistance rate also indicates the negative impact of the antibiotic therapy. To evaluate the extent of transmission and impact of such transmission on the effectiveness of the antibacterial use in human medicine, further study is imperative. Periodic monitoring of antibiotic resistance pattern to detect any change in it would be necessary for the effective treatment against these pathogens. Enterococci revealed an alarming rate of resistance to the standard antimicrobial agents used for therapy and raised MIC values to vancomycin. The importance and infection control were stressed.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

P. K. Linden and C. B. Miller. “Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: The clinical effect of a common nosocomial pathogen”. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 33, pp. 113-120, 1999.

I. Kuhn, A. Lversen, L. G. Burman, B. Olsson-Lilieguist, A. Franklin, M. Finn, F. Aarestrup, A. M. Seyfarth, A. R. Blanch, X. Vilanova, H. Taylor, J. Caplin, M. A. Moreno, L. Dominguez, I. A. Herrero and R. Mollby. “Comparison of enterococcal populations in animals, humans, and the environment-a European study”. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 88, pp. 133-145, 2003.

C. M. Franz, M. E. Stiles, K. H. Schleifer and W. H. Holzapfel. “Enterococci in food-a conundrum for food safety”. International Journal Food Microbiology, vol. 88, pp. 105-122, 2003.

G. Giraffa, A. M. Olivari and E. Neviani. “Isolation of vancomycinresistant Enterococcus faecium from Italian cheeses”. Food Microbiology, vol. 17, pp. 671-677, 2000.

T. J. Eaton and M. J. Gasson. “Molecular screening of Enterococcus virulence determinants and potential for genetic exchange between food and medical isolates”. Applied Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, pp. 1628-1635, 2001.

L. M. Mundy, D. F. Sahm and M. Gilmore. “Relationship between enterococcal virulence and antimicrobial resistance”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 13, pp. 513-522, 2000.

E. Rubinstein and Y. Keynan. “Vancomycin revisited - 60 years later”. Frontiers Public Health, vol. 2, pp. 217, 2014.

D. H. Williams and B. Bardsley. “The vancomycin group of antibiotics and the fight against resistant bacteria”. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 38, pp. 1172-1193, 1999.

S. Gardete and A. Tomasz. “Mechanisms of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus”. Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 124, pp. 2836-2840, 2014.

P. A. C. Maple, J. M. T. Hamilton-MillerBrumfitt. “World-wide antibiotic resistance in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus”. The Lancet, vol. 333, pp. 537-540, 1989.

R. Leclercq, E. Derlot, J. Duval and P. Courvalin. “Plasmidmediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecium”. The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 319, pp. 157-161, 1988.

K. Hiramatsua, H. Hanakia, T. Ino, K. Yabuta, T. Oguric and F. C. Tenover. “Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strain with reduced vancomycin susceptibility”. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 40, pp. 135-136, 1997.

D. M. Sievert, J. T. Rudrik, J. B. Patel, L. C. McDonald, M. J. Wilkins and J. C. Hageman. “Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2002-2006”. Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 668-674, 2008.

P. Vandamme, E. Vercauteren, C. Lammens, N. Pensart, M. Ieven, B. Pot, R. Leclercq and H. Goossens. “Survey of enterococcal susceptibility patterns in Belgium”. Journal Clinical Microbiology, vol. 34, pp. 2572-2576, 1996.

F. M. Aarestrup. “Occurrence of glycopeptide resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolates from conventional and ecological poultry farms”. Microbiology Drug Resistance, vol. 1, pp. 255-257, 1995.

I. Klare, H. Heier, H. Claus, G. Böhme, S. Martin, G. Seltmann, R. Hanenbeck, V. Antanassova and W. Witte. “Enterococcus faecium strains with vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance isolated from animal foodstuffs and fecal samples of humans in the community”. Microbiology Drug Resistance, vol. 1, pp. 265-272, 1995.

A. E. van den Bogaard, L. B. Jensen and E. E. Stobberingh. “Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in turkeys and farmers”. North England Journal Medicine, vol. 337, pp. 1558-1559, 1997.

S. M. Silverman, J. E. Moses and K. B. Sharpless. “Reengineering antibiotics to combat bacterial resistance: Click chemistry [1,2,3]-triazole vancomycin dimers with potent activity against MRSA and VRE”. Chemistry - A European Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 79-83, 2017.

K. Cetinkaya, T. Horaud, C. Le Bougue´nec and G. de Cespe´de`s. “Location of antibiotic resistance markers in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis with similar antibiotypes”. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, vol. 31, pp. 1394-1402, 2000.

P. Mathur, A. Kapil, R. Chandra, P. Sharma and B. Das. “Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus faecalis at a tertiary care centre of Northern India”. Indian Journal Medicine Resistance, vol. 118, pp. 25-28, 2003.

M. M. Aylin, C. A. Spiegel and M. S. Gilmore. “Bacteremia caused by hemolytic, high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis”. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, vol. 35, pp. 16261634, 2010.

V. Holt, A. S. Baghdayan, M. M. Huycke, G. Lindahl and M. S. Gilmore. “Infection-derived Enterococcus faecalis strains are enriched in esp, a gene encoding a novel surface protein”. Infection Immunology, vol. 67, pp. 193-200, 1996.

B. M. Deasy, M. C. Rea, G. F. Fitzgerald, T. M. Cogan and T. P. Beresford. “A rapid PCR based method to distinguish between Lactococcus and Enterococcus”. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, vol. 23, pp. 510-522, 2000.

B. D. Jett, M. M. Huycke and M. S. Gilmore. “Virulence of enterococci”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. vol. 7, pp. 462-478, 1994.

A. P. Johnson, A. H. C. Uttley, N. Woodford and R. C. George. “Resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin: An emerging clinical problem”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 3, pp. 280-291, 1990.

P. Courvalin. “Resistance of enterococci to glycopeptides”. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, vol. 34, pp. 2291-2296, 1990.

M. Teuber, L. Meile and F. Schwarz. “Acquired antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria from food”. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol. 76, pp. 115-137, 1999.

B. E. Murray. “Diversity among multidrug-resistant enterococci in poultry feces”. Emergency Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, pp. 37-47, 1990.

F. M. Aarestrup, P. Ahrens, M. Madsen, L. V. Pallesen, R. L. Poulsen and H. Westh. “Glycopeptide susceptibility among danish Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates of animal and human origin and PCR identification of genes within the VanA cluster”. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1938-1940, 1996.

R. Leclercq and P. Courvalin. “Resistance to glycopeptides in enterococci”. Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 24, pp. 545-546, 1997.

Published
2019-06-30
How to Cite
1.
Makky E, Thanoon R, Kumar Y. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Poultry Feces. cuesj [Internet]. 30Jun.2019 [cited 27Jan.2022];3(1):50-5. Available from: https://journals.cihanuniversity.edu.iq/index.php/cuesj/article/view/85
Section
Research Article