The Influence of Individual, Environmental, Technology, and Manufacturing Factors on Iraqi Gas and Oil Companies

The Moderating Role of Agile

Keywords: Agile, Environmental, Individual, Manufacturing factors in Iraq, Oil and gas, Technology


Implementation of agile technology and its effects on individuals, the environment, technology, and manufacturing factors are the focus of this study, with a special focus on agile technology's moderating effect. Consequently, this study investigates a unique conceptual framework to extend the notions of agile technology implementation in order to address this research gap. This conceptual framework has been subjected to empirical testing, with 380 population-representative employees serving as participants. This study establishes the inclusion requirements for Iraqi oil and gas firms. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data are collected and analyzed using structural equation modelling (PLS). The finding shows that there are various factors that have a positive effect on oil and gas companies in Iraq. The implementation of agile technology also has a partially significant positive moderating effect on these factors, indicating that agile technology can amplify the positive impact of these factors. This can lead to profits and the ability for companies to achieve long-term goals and a competitive advantage in the business environment while achieving sustainability in the oil and gas field. These findings are significant, as they suggest that the implementation of agile technology can have a positive impact on the oil and gas industry in Iraq, leading to long-term sustainability and profitability.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Azwar M.Q. Agha, Department of Business Administration, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Azwar M. Q. Agha is an assistant lecturer at Department of Business Administration, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. His research interests are Marketing and Business Administration.

Aram H. Massoudi, Department of Business Administration, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Aram H. Massoudi is a lecturer at the Department of Business Administration, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. His research interests are Human Resource, Business Management, and Leadership.

Muslim N. Zaidan, Department of Business Administration, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Muslim N. Zaidan is a lecturer at the Department of Business Administration, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. His research interests are: Busniness Administration, Marketing, and Leadership.


Abutabenjeh, S., & Jaradat, R. (2018). Clarification of research design, research methods, and research methodology: A guide for public administration researchers and practitioners. Teaching Public Administration, 36(3), 237-258.

Afthanorhan, A., Awang, Z., & Aimran, N. (2020). An extensive comparison of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for reliability and validity. International Journal of Data and Network Science, 4(4), 357-364.

Agha, A.M.Q., & Massoudi, A.H. (2021). Showing the Impact of Social Responsibility Campaigns on Organizational Reputation. In: 3rd International Conference on Administrative and Financial Sciences.

Ali, K.K., Shafik, S.S., & Husain, H.A. (2017). Radiological assessment of NORM resulting from oil and gas production processing in South Rumaila oil field, Southern Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Science, 58, 1037-1050.

Alkadiri, R. (2020). Oil and the Question of Federalism in Iraq. International Affairs, 86(6), 1315-1328.

Alzoubi, Y.I., Gill, A.Q., & Al-Ani, A. (2016). Empirical studies of geographically distributed agile development communication challenges: A systematic review. Information and Management, 53(1), 22-37.

Ang, S., & Slaughter, S.A. (2002). A taxonomy of employment insourcing and outsourcing strategies in information systems. In: Information Systems Outsourcing: Enduring Themes, Emergent Patterns and Future Directions. Berlin: Springer. pp.131-152.

Asaad, Z., & Al-Delawi, A. (2022). Iraqi stock exchange reactions to the oil price, Covid-19 aftermath, and the Saudi Stock exchange movements pre-during vaccination program. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 12(5), 18-30.

Asaad, Z.A., Al-Delawi, A.S., Fatah, O.R., & Saleem, A.M. (2023). Oil exports, political issues, and stock market nexus. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 13(1), 362-373.

Bell, E., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2022). Business Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Boehm, B.W., Boehm, B., & Turner, R. (2004). Balancing Agility and Discipline: A Guide for the Perplexed. Boston: Addison-Wesley Professional.

BP Energy Outlook. (2019). Brit. Petroleum, London, U.K. Available from: [Last accessed on 2023 Jan 10].

BP Statistical Review of World Energy. (2018). 67th ed. Brit. Petroleum, London, U.K. Available from: [Last accessed on 2023 Feb 13].

Clohessy, T., Acton, T., & Rogers, N. (2019). Blockchain adoption: Technological, organizational and environmental considerations. In: Business Transformation through Blockchain. Vol. 1. Berlin: Springer. pp.47-76.

Cook, K.S., Hardin, R., & Levi, M. (2005). Cooperation without Trust? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Cooper, D., & Schindler, P. (2008). Business Research Methods. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Dikert, K., Paasivaara, M., & Lassenius, C. (2016). Challenges and success factors for large-scale agile transformations: A systematic literature review. Journal of Systems and Software, 119, 87-108.

Digital Transformation Initiative Oil and Gas Industry. (2017). World Economic Forum, Cham, Switzerland. Available from: [Last accessed on 2023 Feb 23].

Dulvy, N.K., Fowler, S.L., Musick, J.A., Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M., Harrison, L.R., & White, W.T. (2014). Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays. Elife, 3, e00590.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 382-388.

Hair, J.F. Jr., Matthews, L.M., Matthews, R.L., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). PLS-SEM or CB-SEM: Updated guidelines on which method to use. International Journal of Multivariate Data Analysis, 1(2), 107-123.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43, 115-135.

Hummel, M., Rosenkranz, C., & Holten, R. (2013). The role of communication in agile systems development: An analysis of the state of the art. Wirtschaftsinformatik, 55, 347-360.

King, B.A., Stark, J.C., & Neibling, H. (2020). Potato Irrigation Management. Berlin: Springer International Publishing. pp.417-446.

Kraidi, L., Shah, R., Matipa, W., & Borthwick, F. (2019). Analyzing the critical risk factors associated with oil and gas pipeline projects in Iraq. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 24, 14-22.

Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.

Kumar, M., Fraser, T., & Ravikumar, R. (2016). The Disruption in Oil and Gas Upstream Business by Industry 4.0. Infosys, Bengaluru, India, White Paper. (2018). Available from: [Last accessed on 2023 Feb 26].

Lee, T.W., Ashford, S.J., Walsh, J.P., & Mowday, R.T. (1992). Commitment propensity, organizational commitment, and voluntary turnover: A longitudinal study of organizational entry processes. Journal of Management, 18(1), 15-32.

Mackeprang, K., Kjaergaard, H.G., Salmi, T., Hänninen, V., & Halonen, L. (2014). The effect of large amplitude motions on the transition frequency redshift in hydrogen bonded complexes: A physical picture. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 140(18), 184309.

Massoudi, A.H., Fatah, S.J., & Ahmed, M.E. (2019). Incorporating green innovation to enhance environmental sustainability. WSEAS Transactions onBusiness and Economics, 16(1), 479-480.

Massoudi, A., & Ahmed, M. (2021). Assessing the sustainability of facilities management in the ‎food sector in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Cihan UniversityErbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(1), 106-110.

Massoudi, A. (2018). Achieving competitive advantage by using supply chain strategies. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 7(4), 22-29.

Naslund, D., & Kale, R. (2020). Is agile the latest management fad? A review of success factors of agile transformations. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 12(4), 489-504.

Obaid, M.K., Abdullah, L.C., Mahdi, D.S., Idan, I.J., & Jamil, S.N.A. (2017). Fixed-bed adsorption study for removing of reactive orange 16 and acid red 114 dyes from aqueous solution using kenaf. International Journal of Research in Advanced Engineering and Technology, 3(1), 32-40.

OPEC OPEC Share of World Crude Oil Reserves. Available from: [Last accessed on 2023 Mar 06].

Panwar, A., Jain, R., Rathore, A.P.S., Nepal, B., & Lyons, A.C. (2018). The impact of lean practices on operational performance-an empirical investigation of Indian process industries. Production Planning and Control, 29(2), 158-169.

Rigby, S.E., Lodge, T.J., Alotaibi, S., Barr, A.D., Clarke, S.D., Langdon, G.S., & Tyas, A. (2020). Preliminary yield estimation of the 2020 Beirut explosion using video footage from social media. Shock Waves, 30(6), 671-675.

Sarstedt, M., Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M., Thiele, K.O., & Gudergan, S.P. (2016). Estimation issues with PLS and CBSEM: Where the bias lies! Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 3998-4010.

Shmueli, G., Sarstedt, M., Hair, J.F., Cheah, J.H., Ting, H., Vaithilingam, S., & Ringle, C.M. (2019). Predictive model assessment in PLS-SEM: Guidelines for using PLSpredict. European Journal of Marketing, 53(11), 2322-2347.

Stark, J. (2020). Product Lifecycle Management (PLM). Vol. 1. Cham: Springer. pp.1-33.

Stray, J., Vendrov, I., Nixon, J., Adler, S., & Hadfield-Menell, D. (2021). What are you optimizing for? aligning recommender systems with human values. arXiv preprint arXiv:2107.10939.

Younus, A.M., & Zaidan, M.N. (2022). The influence of quantitative research in business & information technology: An appropriate research methodology philosophical reflection. American Journal of Interdisciplinary Research and Development, 4, 61-79.

Yang, B., Wang, Y., & Qian, P.Y. (2016). Sensitivity and correlation of hypervariable regions in 16S rRNA genes in phylogenetic analysis. BMC Bioinformatics, 17(1), 135.

Younus, D.A.M., & Younis, H. (2021). Conceptual framework of agile project management, affecting project performance, key: Requirements and challenges. International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering and Management (IJIREM), 8, 10-14.

Younus, A.M., Zaidan, M.N., & Mahmood, D.S. (2022). Supporting the policy effect of intellectual capital on liquefied natural gas companies 'competitive advantage. Research Jet Journal of Analysis and Inventions, 3(5), 211-227.

How to Cite
Agha, A., Massoudi, A., & Zaidan, M. (2023). The Influence of Individual, Environmental, Technology, and Manufacturing Factors on Iraqi Gas and Oil Companies. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(1), 136-147.

Most read articles by the same author(s)